Philomachus pugnax   Linnaeus,  1758 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae

Image copyrights: Pbase

Description
Size: 26-32 cm.

Voice: Generally silent, low chugh-chugh.

Habits: Gregarious, generally in small flocks of about 25 birds in company of other waders, though may congregate in large number at arrival and departure time in NW India and on chosen feeding grounds. Starts arriving by August / September and departs by February / March.

Non-breeding (winter): A greyish-brown wader with bold scaly-patterned upperparts, relatively short, dark brown bill with yellowish base, varying-orange-yellow legs. Breeding (summer): Upperparts of both sexes blackish, feathers edged with buff or rufous, breast flanks etc. suffused with brown. Male (Ruff): Face covered with yellow caruncles and grows an enormous ruff, extending form nape to cover the entire breast. The ruff may be of any colour-chestnut, buff, white, black or grey. Female (Reeve): Upperparts blackish, sometimes with black linear spots or broken bars on pale fulvous breast.

Breeding season: It breeds from May to August. Nest- The nest is a shallow scrape concealed in marsh vegetation or meadow grass on damp ground usually more than 100 m away from the nearest lek site. The species nests solitarily or semi-colonially, neighbouring nests occasionally only a few metres apart.

Synonym (s)
Tringa pugnax (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Name (s)
• Bagbed (Hindi)
• Reeve (English)
• Ruff (English)
• Tiliyo (Gujarati)
• Gehwala (Hindi)
• Geh-wala (Hindi)
• Bagbad (Hindi)
• Bahuvarnan manaloothi (Malayalam)
• Vara cheravi (Tamil)
• Gherbala, Galabandh panlawa (Marathi)
• Geowala
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(A good sporting bird.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The species is threatened by petroleum pollution wetland and flood-plain drainage (for irrigation and water management) peat-extraction, and land abandonment and changing land management practices that lead to scrub and reed overgrowth.)
Threats:  Natural threats
(The species may also suffer future population declines and range contractions as a result of global climate change and is susceptible to avian influenza avian botulism and avian malaria so may be threatened by future outbreaks of these diseases.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Muddy
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Mainly carnivorous, comprising molluscs, crustaceans, aquatic insects, occasionally exclusively on aquatic plants.
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Manipur (Lat: 24.68) (Long: 93.90) INDIA
• Assam (Lat: 26.21) (Long: 92.93) INDIA
• Kashmir (Lat: 34.30) (Long: 76.81) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• INDIA
• PAKISTAN
• BANGLADESH
• SRI LANKA
• MALDIVES
• Goa, Agarwaddo marshes INDIA (Record: 08/11/1983)
• Goa, Baga INDIA
• Goa, Chorao INDIA
• Goa, Divar INDIA
• Goa, Carambolim INDIA
• Goa, Neura INDIA
• INDIA
• BANGLADESH
• PAKISTAN
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA (Record: 08/1986 - 07/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Point Calimere (Lat: 10.3) (Long: 79.85) INDIA
• Haryana, Kurukshetra INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Arunachal Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Bet Dwarka INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet Mangroves (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 79.58) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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Page last updated on:2013-01-30

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