Numenius phaeopus   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae

Image copyrights: Pbase

Description
Size: 40-46 cm; Length: 40-43 cm.

Color: Above, neck chest and flanks buff streaked dark brown; belly and lower back white; bold head pattern with buff crown bordered by dark stripe, white or buffish superciliary stripe and dark stripe through eye; tail barred. Immature like adult. Bare parts: iris hazel to dark brown; bill horn brown, paler brown or pinkish toward base, strongly decurved; feet and legs dull blue- or greenish-grey.

Voice: Distinctive whitle he-he-he-he-he.

Habits: Gregarious, often found in flocks of 5-15 in winter, walks about on mud and feebs by picking up from surface or by probing.

Adult: Sexes alike. Bill long, down curved, horny brown, crown black with one white median stripe and two white superciliary stripes, a dark brown band from lores through eye to ear-coverts. Upperparts sandy brown with whitish spots, lower back and rump white, tail ashy-brown with blackish bars, chin, throat and abdomen white, remaining underparts dusky, white-black streaks on foreneck and breast, and bars on flanks, legs and feet greenish-grey. Juvenile: Mantle buff-scalloped, lower back, rump and upper tail-coverts white, finely brown scalloped.

Breedinf season: It breeds from May to August either in well-dispersed solitary pairs or in loose groups depending on the topography of the land. Nest: The nest is a shallow depression often positioned on hummocks or in short heather or grass in dry exposed locations.

Synonym (s)
Scolopax phaeopus Linnaeus, 1758

Common Name (s)
• Whimbrel (English)
• Chhota goungh/gulinda (Hindi)
• Nani khalili (Gujrati)
• Kuthirai thalai kottan (Tamil)
• Tetti kokku (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats
(The species is susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Rocky, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Adult and larval insects (e.g. Coleoptera, Orthoptera and cranefly larvae), spiders, millipedes, earthworms, snails, slugs, seeds, leaves and berries
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• INDIA
• PAKISTAN
• BANGLADESH
• SRI LANKA
• MALDIVES
• Goa, Velsao INDIA
• Goa, Divar INDIA (Record: 22/07/2000, 20/06/1998)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA (Record: 08/1986-07/1987)
• Orissa, Magarmukh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 76.31) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.66) (Long: 76.55) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi estuary INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Port INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Tinnakara INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Suheli INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Andrott INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA (Record: 01/1987-04/1987)
• Arunachal Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Point Calimere (Lat: 10.3) (Long: 79.85) INDIA
• Kerela, Kuttanad wetlands INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Abbaasi, SA (1997) Wetlands of India-Ecology and Threats Discovery Publishing House,New Delhi II 1-182 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
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  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
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  • Borges, SD and Shanbhag, AB (2008) Food resource partitioning among waterbirds wintering on the Diwar wetland in the Mandove estuary of Goa, India Proceedings of Taal2007:The 12th World Lake conference 124-130 Available at - http://wldb.ilec.or.jp/data/ilec/wlc12/A%20-%20Ecology%20&%20Biodiversity/A-21.pdf
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at - http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/greenpeace-biodiversity.pdf
  • Mohan, RSL (1989) Some observations on the marine mammals and marine birds Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 195-199 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at - http://www.itis.gov.
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  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(1).pdf
  • Avibase- the world database Available at - http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%206%20(1).pdf
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%208%20(1).pdf
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at - http://envis-eptri.ap.nic.in/images/Vol.10,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • Lal Mohan RS (1986) Birds and Bird Catchers Of Ramanathapuram Coast Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/5615/1/10.pdf
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  • Narayanan SP, Thomas AP and Sreekumar B (2011) Ornithofauna and its conservation in the Kuttanad wetlands, southern portion of Vembanad-Kole Ramsar site, India Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(4) 1663–1676 Available at - http://threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2011/April/o187026iv111663-1676.pdf
  • Nayak, A.K. (2006) Status of migratory shorebirds at Bhitarkanika and Chilika wetlands on the east coast of India Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK 305-307pp Available at - http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/PDF/pub07_waterbirds_part3.5.16.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-07-02

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