Numenius arquata   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae

Image copyrights: Pbase

Description
Size: 50-60 cm; Length 53-59 cm.

Color: Above, head neck and breast streaked brown on buff; belly and rump white; flanks with brown streaking. Immature like adult. Bare parts: iris brown; bill brown with pinkish base, extremely long (three times length of head) and strongly decurved; immature with shorter bill; feet and legs greenish-, pinkish- or bluish-grey.

Voice: Plaintive cur-lew.

Habits: Keeps singly or in small flocks of about 6 birds, runs around and feeds between tidemarks, wary and difficult to approach. Starts arriving in India by October and departs by April end or early May.

Adult: Sexes alike. An unmistakable wader with long, slender and strongly downcurved dark brown bill, bluish-grey legs and feet, plumage, streaked buff and brown, abdomen whitish streaked with black, white lower back and rump conspicuous in flight. Juvenile: With more pronounced buff streaks on upperparts, white back, buff tinge on rump, narrow black streaks on breast and abdomen.

Nesting: Season- in N. Europe east to Siberia, April to june. Nest- The nest is a shallow depression on the ground or on a mound in the open or in the cover of grass or sedge often far from water.

Synonym (s)
Scolopax arquata Linnaeus, 1758

Common Name (s)
• Eurasian Curlew (English)
• Curlew (English)
• Guinyar (Hindi)
• Bada gulinda (Hindi)
• Goungh (Hindi)
• Valkokku (Malayalam)
• Kuthirai thalai kottan, Khudure kottan (Tamil)
• Kural (Marathi)
• Khalili, Vilayati khalili (Gujrati)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Wintering populations are threatened by disturbance on intertidal mudflats (e.g. from construction work and foot-traffic), development on high-tide roosting sites, pollution and the flooding of estuarine mudflats and saltmarshes as a result of tidal barrage construction. The species is also threatened by the degradation of migrational staging areas owing to land reclamation, pollution, human disturbance and reduced river flows. Local populations of this species have also declined owing to hunting pressures.)
Threats:  Natural threats
(Susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus.
The species also suffers from high egg and chick mortalities (due to mechanical mowing) and higher predation rates if nesting on improved grasslands )

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Rocky, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Carnivorous, comprising fiddler and sand crabs, crustaceans and insects.
IUCN Status:  NearThreatened

Biogeography


• INDIA
• PAKISTAN
• BANGLADESH
• SRI LANKA
• MALDIVES
• Goa, Chapora estuary INDIA (Record: 30/08/1982)
• INDIA
• BANGLADESH
• PAKISTAN
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA (Record: 08/1986-07/1987)
• Orissa, Sapara INDIA
• Orissa, Mouze Behrampur INDIA
• Orissa, Magarmukh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 76.31) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.66) (Long: 76.55) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Port INDIA
• Arunachal Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Point Calimere (Lat: 10.3) (Long: 79.85) INDIA
• Kerela, Kuttanad wetlands INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Bet Dwarka INDIA
• Gujarat, Mahi River estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet Mangroves (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 79.58) INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Andaman & Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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Page last updated on:2012-07-12

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