Limicola falcinellus   (Pontoppidan,  1763) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Aves

Image copyrights: PBase

Size: 16-18 cm; Length 16.5-17 cm.

Color: Above uniformly grey with paler edges to feathers; below white with some grey streaking on breast; head pattern with dark centre crown bordered by white double (forked) superciliary stripe; breeding bird darker with cream rather than pale grey edges to feathers. Immature much darker than non-breeding adult with more distinct pale markings on back and wings. Bare parts: iris dark brown; bill straight, downward kinked at tip, blackish or brownish horn, sometimes olive at base; feet and legs dark grey to dark brown sometimes tinged olive.

Voice: Twittering flushing note.

Habits: Generally solitary in winters or small flocks when in passage, feeds by pecking and probing. Starts arriving by end of July and August and departs by the end of May.

Sexes alike. Non-breeding (winter): Bill horny black with broad base and slightly downcurved, supercilium short and white, upperparts mottled dark grey-brown, with a blackish patch on wing-shoulder, rump, upper tail-coverts and middle rectrices brown, underparts white with streaks on breast, legs and feet yellowish grey. Breeding (summer): Upperparts black has buff stripes, a double eye-stripe.

Breeding season: Breeding occurs in early- to late-June or between mid-June and early-July. Nest- The nest is a cup on top of a wet sedge or moss cushion, well raised above the water level.

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Broad Billed Sandpiper (English)
• Broad-billed Sandpiper (English)
• Safednena kichadiyo, Swethnen khichdiyo (Gujrati)
• Broadbilled Sandpiper (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Important migrational staging areas of this species around the coast being lost through land reclamation, and degraded as a result of declining river flows (from water abstraction), increased environmental pollution, unsustainable harvesting of benthic fauna. )

Habitat:  Estuarine, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Carnivorous (molluscs, aquatic insects, worms).
IUCN Status:  Least Concern


• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake (Lat: 19.77) (Long: 85.33) INDIA
• South East coast INDIA
• Goa, Sinquerim INDIA (Record: 18/03/1993)
• Goa, Chapora Estuary INDIA
• Goa, Chorao INDIA
• Goa, Divar INDIA
• Goa, Santa Cruz INDIA
• Goa, Panaji saltpans INDIA
• Goa, Miramar beach INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA (Record: 08/1986-07/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2001) Sanctuary Asia natural history species: Species checklist: Birds Sanctuary Asia Sanctuary Magazine Available at -
  • Tikader, BK (1984) Birds of Andaman and Nicobar Island ZSI, Kolkata 1-167 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at -
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at -
  • Balchandran, S (1998) Migratory, threathened and rare birds of Kanyakumari district Zoos' Print Journal Zoo Outreach Organisation, Coimbatore 13 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Subba Rao, NV and Sastry, DRK (2005) Fauna of Marine National Park, Gulf of Kuchchh (Gujarat) ZSI 79 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Abbaasi, SA (1997) Wetlands of India-Ecology and Threats Discovery Publishing House,New Delhi II 1-182 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • PBase Available at -
  • Sampath, K and Krishnamurthy, K (1990) Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) of the Pichavaram Mangroves, Tamil Nadu, India Wader Study Group Bulletin 58 24-27 Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at -
  • Myers, P; Espinosa, R; Parr, CS; Jones, T; Hammond, GS and Dewey, TA (2006) Animal diversity web Available at -
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at -
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at -
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at -
  • Lal Mohan RS (1986) Birds and Bird Catchers Of Ramanathapuram Coast Available at -
  • Nayak, A.K. (2006) Status of migratory shorebirds at Bhitarkanika and Chilika wetlands on the east coast of India Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK 305-307pp Available at -
  • Avibase- the world database Available at -

Page last updated on:2013-01-31

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