Calidris minuta   (Leisler,  1812) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae

Image copyrights: Pbase

Description
Size: 13-15 cm; Length 13-15 cm.

Color: Above grey with paler grey edges to feathers; below white with speckling on breast which may encircle entire breast; paler V may be present at edge of mantle; breeding plumage above dark brown edged rufous and tipped white; foreneck and upper breast spotted brown and washed rufous. Immature like adult but with tawny- or buff-edged dorsal feathers. Bare parts: iris dark brown; bill short and fine, black; feet and legs black.

Voice: Weak pi, pi, pi.

Habits: Gregarious, often found in large flocks of hundreds mixed with other waders in coastal areas, constantly runs around on mud picking up food, when disturbed whole flock flies simultaneously and swiftly like a cloud. Starts arriving in India in small numbers by August and departs by April/May.

Adult: Sexes alike. Non-breeding (winter): Bill black, forehead and supercilia white, upperparts 'scaly' grey-brown with smoky-brown outer tail feathers, underparts white with faint streaks on breast, legs and feet blackish. Breeding (summer): Has forehead and supercilia often obsolete pale fawn, feathers on back black with broad rufous edges, foreneck and upper breast indistinctly spotted dark brown. Juvenile: Like adult in summer, but hind neck greyer and mantle less rufous, white below.

Nesting: Season- in NE. Europe and Siberia, June/July. Nest- a cup-shaped depression lined with willow leaves, on grassy marshland. Eggs- 4, pyriform, greenish to buffish stone-color, spotted and blotched with reddish brown.


Synonym (s)
Tringa minuta (Leisler, 1812)

Common Name (s)
• Little Stint (English)
• Chhota Panlowwa (Hindi)
• Runni (Hindi)
• Kosu ullan (Tamil)
• Chhota panlawa (Marathi)
• Kichadiyo, Kalapag khichdiyo, nano khichdiyo (Gujrati)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The species is threatened on the south-east coast of India (Point Calimere) by illegal hunting (bird trapping), reservoir and marshland habitat alteration by salt-industries, and habitat degradation by diminishing rainfall (changing the salt regime). )
Threats:  Natural threats
(This species is also susceptible to avian malaria and avian botulism so may be threatened by future outbreaks of these diseases.)
Importance:  Commercial
(Hunting by locals for meat.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Chiefly carnivorous, comprising small molluscs, crustaceans, insects, also aquatic plants and seeds.
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep Islands (Lat: 11.00) (Long: 72.50) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• INDIA
• PAKISTAN
• BANGLADESH
• SRI LANKA
• MALDIVES
• Goa, Baga INDIA (Record: 02/03/1982)
• Goa, Agarwaddo marshes INDIA
• Goa, Chorao INDIA
• Goa, Divar INDIA
• Goa, Panaji saltpans INDIA
• Goa, Carambolim INDIA
• Goa, Neura INDIA
• Goa, Velsao beach INDIA
• INDIA
• BANGLADESH
• PAKISTAN
• Orissa, Satpara INDIA (Record: 09/12/1986)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA (Record: 08/1986-07/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Port INDIA
• Haryana, Kurukshetra INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Point Calimere (Lat: 10.3) (Long: 79.85) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 8.5) (Long: 79) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Arunachal Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2001) Sanctuary Asia natural history species: Species checklist: Birds Sanctuary Asia Sanctuary Magazine Available at - http://www.sanctuaryasia.com/resources/speciechklist/bird.php
  • Tikader, BK (1984) Birds of Andaman and Nicobar Island ZSI, Kolkata 1-167 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at - http://www.itis.gov.
  • Chattopadhyay, S (1995) Aves Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 561-599 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fauna of Tripura (part-1) vertebrates ZSI, Kolkata 365 pp
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Tikader, BK and Das, AK (1985) Glimpses of animal life of Andaman and Nicobar Islands ZSI, Kolkata 1-170 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Balasubramanian, T Lagoons of India Environmental Information System Centre, Envis Publication Series: 3/2001 105 pp Available at - http://aucasmbenvis.org/files/04-Publications/lagoon%20status.pdf
  • Balchandran, S (1998) Migratory, threathened and rare birds of Kanyakumari district Zoos' Print Journal Zoo Outreach Organisation, Coimbatore 13 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Repository of specimens of Indian origin in the Liverpool museum
  • Subba Rao, NV and Sastry, DRK (2005) Fauna of Marine National Park, Gulf of Kuchchh (Gujarat) ZSI 79 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Wall, F (1910) A popular treatise on the common Indian snakes Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society BNHS Part XIII with 65-79
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ali, S (1977) The book of Indian birds Bombay Natural History Society 175 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • PBase Available at - http://www.pbase.com/
  • Sampath, K and Krishnamurthy, K (1990) Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) of the Pichavaram Mangroves, Tamil Nadu, India Wader Study Group Bulletin 58 24-27 Available at - http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/IWSGB/n058/p00024-p00027.pdf
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Chadha, S and Sekar, KC (1999) Bhitarkanika:myth and reality Nataraj publishers, Dehra Dun Available at - NIO, Goa
  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Borges, SD and Shanbhag, AB (2008) Food resource partitioning among waterbirds wintering on the Diwar wetland in the Mandove estuary of Goa, India Proceedings of Taal2007:The 12th World Lake conference 124-130 Available at - http://wldb.ilec.or.jp/data/ilec/wlc12/A%20-%20Ecology%20&%20Biodiversity/A-21.pdf
  • Nagarjuna, A; Kumar,NVN; Kalarani, V and Reddy, DC (2010) Aquatic and avian biodiversity of Pulicat brackish water lake and ecological degradation World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 2 (2) 118-123 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms2%282%2910/8.pdf
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at - http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/greenpeace-biodiversity.pdf
  • Gupta RC, Kaushik TK and Gupta PK (2012) WINTER MIGRATORY WETLAND BIRDS IN HARYANA ARE CONFRONTING ADVERSE CONDITIONS IN RURAL PONDS Resulting in reduction in arrival number: A case study of village Amin in Thanesar block in Kurukshetra district Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences 2 (1) 7pp Available at - http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2012/Vol%202%20No%201/1-002%20Gupta-Migratory.pdf
  • Sivaperuman C and Jayson EA (2000) Birds of Kol wetland, Thrissur, Kerala Zoo's print journal 15(10) 344-349pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2000/October/344-349.pdf
  • Balachandran, S (2006) The decline in wader populations along the east coast of India with special reference to Point Calimere, south-east India. Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK. 296-301pp Available at - http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/pdf/pub07_waterbirds_part3.5.13.pdf
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(1).pdf
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%206%20(1).pdf
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%208%20(1).pdf
  • Kumar P and Gupta SK (2009) Diversity and Abundance of Wetland Birds around Kurukshetra, India Our Nature 7 212-217 Available at - http://www.mtnforum.org/sites/default/files/pub/6167.pdf
  • Lal Mohan RS (1986) Birds and Bird Catchers Of Ramanathapuram Coast Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/5615/1/10.pdf
  • Nayak, A.K. (2006) Status of migratory shorebirds at Bhitarkanika and Chilika wetlands on the east coast of India Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK 305-307pp Available at - http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/PDF/pub07_waterbirds_part3.5.16.pdf
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at - http://envis-eptri.ap.nic.in/images/Vol.10,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • Ali S and Ripley SD (1969) Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan Oxford university press 2 1-337pp Available at - NIO
  • Pande S, Sant N, Ranade S, Pednekar S, Mestry P, Deshpande P, Kharat S and Deshmukh V (2007) Avifaunal survey of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, January 2007 Indian Birds 3 (5) 162–180pp Available at - http://www.indianbirds.in/pdfs/Avifaunal%20survey%20of%20Andaman%20and%20Nicobar%20Islands,%20January%202007.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-08-30

Back to Search