Calidris alpina   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Charadriiformes
Family:Scolopacidae

Image copyrights: Pbase

Description
Size: 16-22 cm, Length 822 cm.

Voice: shrill tue-ep or wee-wee-et

Habits: Gregarious, keeps in flocks mixed with other waders, scatters to feed on wet mud as well by wading near water edges, flies swiftly in close pack. Starts arriving in India by August and departs by mid-May.

Sexes alike. Non-breeding (winter): Upperparts grey-brown, throat, belly and under tail-coverts white, breast streaked grey, bill black, long and slightly downcurved near tip. Breeding (summer): Has head and upperparts chestnut boldly mottled with black, underparts white, except centre of breast and abdomen black. In flight, the white wing-bar, as in Curlew Sandpiper, conspicuous, but differs from it by black upper tail-coverts instead of white.

Nest- Its nest is a scrape or shallow depression in the ground, concealed in vegetation and sometimes in a tuft or tussock (and thus raised slightly off the ground).

Synonym (s)
Tringa alpina Linnaeus, 1758

Common Name (s)
• Dunlin (English)
• Lapland dunlin (English)
• Kalopet kichadiyo (Gujrati)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats
(The species is susceptible to avian influenza (strain H5N1 in particular) and is therefore threatened by outbreaks of the virus.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(This species is significantly threatened by the loss of its breeding habitat though afforestation of moorland. It may also suffer from nest predation by introduced mammals (e.g. European hedgehog Erinaceus europeaus) on some islands. In the winter this species is restricted to a small number of estuaries, so it is vulnerable to any changes in this habitat for example through land reclamation (drainage) and the invasion of alien plant species (such as the grass Spartina anglica which has spread on British mudflats, resulting in the reduction in size of feeding areas available) . The species is also threatened by disturbance on intertidal mudflats from construction work and foot-traffic on footpaths. Important migratory stop-over habitats on the Baltic Sea coastline adjacent to the Kaliningrad region of Russia are threatened by petroleum pollution, wetland drainage for irrigation, peat-extraction, reedbed mowing and burning, and abandonment and changing land management practices leading to scrub and reed overgrowth.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Carnivorous, comprising molluscs, crustaceans, aquatic insects.
Predator:  European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeaus)
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Gujarat, Saurashtra (Lat: 21.97) (Long: 70.5) INDIA
• West coast INDIA
• PAKISTAN
• BANGLADESH
• SRI LANKA
• MALDIVES
• Goa, Morjim beach INDIA (Record: 18/11/1983)
• Goa, Terekhol Estuary INDIA
• Goa, Arambol beach INDIA
• Goa, Agarwaddo marshes INDIA
• Goa, Chapora Estuary INDIA
• Goa, Arpora INDIA
• Goa, Divar INDIA
• Goa, Chorao INDIA
• Goa, Santa Cruz INDIA
• Goa, Velsao beach INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram INDIA (Record: 08/1986-07/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary INDIA
• Gujarat, Bet Dwarka INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2001) Sanctuary Asia natural history species: Species checklist: Birds Sanctuary Asia Sanctuary Magazine Available at - http://www.sanctuaryasia.com/resources/speciechklist/bird.php
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at - http://www.itis.gov.
  • Abbaasi, SA (1997) Wetlands of India-Ecology and Threats Discovery Publishing House,New Delhi II 1-182 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Kumar, A; Sati, JP; Tak, PC and Alfred, JRB (2005) Handbook on Indian wetland birds and their conservation Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun 468 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Lainer, H (2004) Birds of Goa : A reference book The Goa Foundation, Goa 244 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • PBase Available at - http://www.pbase.com/
  • Sampath, K and Krishnamurthy, K (1990) Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) of the Pichavaram Mangroves, Tamil Nadu, India Wader Study Group Bulletin 58 24-27 Available at - http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/IWSGB/n058/p00024-p00027.pdf
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nameer, PO (2005) Wetlands and waterfowl conservation in kerala with special reference to Ramsar sites kerala environment congress 2005 Centre for environment and development 97-112 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vernacular names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent Buceros, Envis newsletter: Avian Ecology & Inland Wetlands 62pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%203%20(1).pdf
  • Manakadan R and Pittie A (2001) Standardized English names of the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent BUCEROS Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetland 6(1) 26pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%206%20(1).pdf
  • Kumar A, sati JP and Tak CK (2003) Checklist of Indian Waterbids Buceros Envis Newsletter: Avian ecology and inland wetlands 8(1) 30pp Available at - http://www.bnhsenvis.nic.in/pdf/BUCEROS%208%20(1).pdf
  • Lal Mohan RS (1986) Birds and Bird Catchers Of Ramanathapuram Coast Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/5615/1/10.pdf
  • Balchandran S, Rahmani AR and Sathiyaselvam P (2005) Habitat evaluation of Chilka lake with special reference to birds as bio-indicators Bombay Natural History Society 140pp Available at - http://www.chilika.com/Import%20docum/Final%20Report%202001-05.pdf
  • Nayak, A.K. (2006) Status of migratory shorebirds at Bhitarkanika and Chilika wetlands on the east coast of India Waterbirds around the world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK 305-307pp Available at - http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/PDF/pub07_waterbirds_part3.5.16.pdf
  • Rao VV, Anjaneyulu M, Nagulu V, Srinivasulu C and Satyanarayana D (2004) Water fowl Status at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh EPTRI - ENVIS Newsletter 10(4) 7-12pp Available at - http://envis-eptri.ap.nic.in/images/Vol.10,%20No.4,%202004.pdf
  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at - http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/19pdfs/Urfi-Okhla.pdf
  • Urfi AJ (2002) Waders and other wetland birds on Byet Dwarka Island, Gulf of Kutch, western India Wader Study Group Bull. 31-34 Available at - http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/IWSGB/v099/p00031-p00034.pdf
  • Gopi GV and Pandav B (2007) Avifauna of Bhitarkanika Mangroves, India Zoo's print journal 22(10) 2839-2847pp Available at - http://www.zoosprint.org/ZooPrintJournal/2007/October/2839-2847.pdf
  • Ali S and Ripley SD (1969) Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan Oxford university press 2 1-337pp Available at - NIO

Page last updated on:2013-01-31

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