Phalacrocorax carbo   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Pelecaniformes
Family:Phalacrocoracidae

Image copyrights: Pbase

Description
Size: 80-100 cm; Length: 80-100 cm.

Color: Generally black with a greenish gloss; cheeks, throat to upper breast white; thigh patches white when breeding. Immature blackish-brown above, off-white below. Bare parts: iris green; lores orange in male, scarlet in female; bill grey-darker above; gular pouch olive to dark green; feet and legs black. Immature with yellow gular pouch.

Voice: Usually silent.

Habits: Occurs in small groups generally in the deeper waters for fishing, forms large flocks during breeding season, breed in large heronries from September to February.

Adult: Sexes alike. Black waterbirds with a slender bill, hooked at tip and stiff longish tail. Breeding: Glossy black plumage with metallic blue-green sheen, throat and front half of face white, gular pouch bright yellow, silky white plumage on head and neck, a broad white patch on posterior flanks. Non-breeding (winter): Yellow gular pouch less bright, silky white of head and neck and the white patch on posterior flanks disappear. Juvenile: Brown above and white below.

Breeding season: The timing of breeding varies geographically, occurring all year round. Nest- The nest varies from a depression to a platform of sticks, reeds and seaweed. On the coast the species nests on inshore islands, cliffs, stacks, amongst boulders and occasionally on artificial structures, also nesting inland on trees or bushes, in reedbeds or on bare ground. The species usually nests in mixed-species colonies, often re-using sites and nests from year to year.

Synonym (s)
Phalacrocorax carbo Ripley, 1982
Phalecanus sinensis Shaw, 1801

Common Name (s)
• Great Cormorant (English)
• long-tailed cormorant (English)
• Pan Kawri
• Large Cormorant (English)
• Cormorant (English)
• common cormorant (English)
• Valiya neerakakka (Malayalam)
• Bontakaki, Pedda neeti kaki (Telugu)
• Motha pankawla, Kardhok (Marathi)
• Jal kagdo, Moto kajiyo (Gujrati)
• Ghogur, Paan-kowwa, Jal-kowwa (Hindi)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The species is often persecuted by the aquaculture industry and may be shot, drowned or poisoned in attempts to control numbers. It may also suffer from disturbance from coastal wind farms (wind turbines). )
Threats:  Natural threats
(Susceptible to avian influenza and Newcastle disease so may be threatened by future outbreaks of these viruses )
Importance:  Commercial
(The species is hunted for recreation and is sold at commercial food markets in Iran.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Rocky, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Fish, including sculpins, Capelin, gadids as well as crustaceans, amphibians, molluscs and nestling birds
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• North West INDIA
• PAKISTAN
• BANGLADESH
• SRI LANKA
• Goa INDIA (Record: 17/11/1997, 15/08/2000, 09/09/2000)
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.66) (Long: 76.55) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 76.31) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Haryana, Kurukshetra INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai, Pallikaranai Wetlands INDIA
• Kerela, Kuttanad wetlands INDIA
• Delhi, Okhla barrage bird sanctuary INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Barua, M (2001) Mid winter waterfowl census at Pobitora wildlife sanctury for the year 2000 Zoos' Print Journal 16(5) 500-501 Available at - NCL, Pune
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  • PBase Available at - http://www.pbase.com/
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  • Urfi AJ (2003) The birds of Okhla barrage bird sanctuary, Delhi, India Forktail 19 39-50pp Available at - http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/19pdfs/Urfi-Okhla.pdf
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Page last updated on:2012-08-01

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