Pelecanus philippensis   Gmelin,  1789 (Bird)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Aves
Order:Pelecaniformes
Family:Pelecanidae

Image copyright: pbase

Description
Size: 140-152 cm, Range mass: 4100 to 5700 g, Range wingspan: 5.25 to 6.07 m.

Voice: Usually silent.

Habits: Gregarious, oftern found in associations with egrets and cormorants, breeds from September to April.

Adult: Sexes alike. Head, neck and upperparts grey, underparts greyish-white, under tail-coverts mottled with brown, bill and gular pouch flesh-coloured, blue spots on upper mandible and blackish marking on pouch, nuchal crest brown, composed of white-tipped elongated feathers, legs and feet dark brown. In summer, under wing-coverts and under tail-coverts slightly wine-coloured, in winter lower back, rump and flanks tinged with vinaceous. Juvenile: Pale brown above and white below.

Nesting: Season- November to April. Nest- a large stick platform in tall trees and palms, often far from water, several nests in the same tree, and the colony often covering large areas. Eggs-3, chalky white, becoming considerably dirty as incubation proceeds.

Synonym (s)

Common Name (s)
• Spot Billed Pelican (English)
• Spottedbilled Pelican (English)
• Grey Pelican (English)
• Hawasil (Hindi)
• Kurer (Hindi)
• Spot-billed pelican (English)
• short-billed pelican (English)
• Zholiwala, Hawaseel (Marathi)
• Ruperi pen (Gujrati)
• Kotumpannom (Malayalam)
• Chinkabatu (Tamil)
Economic Importance and Threats
(Key threats are a combination of human disturbance at breeding colonies and wetlands, extensive felling of nesting trees, the impact of invasive plants on the species's wetland habitat, hunting and poaching of eggs and chicks. Additional threats include the loss of important feeding-sites through siltation, agricultural intensification, aquaculture development, building of power stations, drainage and conversion of wetlands, declines in wetland productivity as a result of pesticide use, and over-exploitation of fisheries.)
Importance:  Commercial
(Pelicans have been historically used as domestic birds in Egypt and as fishing helpers in India. Relatively slow and direct in flight, pelicans make easy birds to track, leading fishermen to fish-rich areas. Unlike many other birds, pelicans eat a number of fish that are not considered commercially valuable such as carp and silversides, and do not typically compete with commercial fishermen. As a vulnerable species, P. philippensis may also increase ecotourism to Southeast Asia. They are occasionally consumed in Cambodia and possibly other countries as well.)
Importance:  Ecosystem balance
(Spot-billed pelicans are predators of small to medium-sized fish, amphibians, and reptiles. Young pelicans may also be prey to crows, Brahminy kites, and jackals. There are no known mutualisms or commensalisms involving this species.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Mainly fish in large quantity, small reptiles, amphibians, and aquatic crustaceans
Predator:  Brahminy kites Haliastus indus crows (Corvus) jackals (Canis aureus)
IUCN Status:  NearThreatened

Biogeography


• Karnataka INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• BANGLADESH
• SRI LANKA
• MALDIVES
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.66) (Long: 76.55) INDIA
• Kerala, Vembanad Lake (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 76.31) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 75.96) INDIA
• Kerala, Kol wetlands (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 76.18) INDIA
• Orissa, Bhitarkanika INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Muthupet Mangroves (Lat: 10.33) (Long: 79.58) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai, Pallikaranai Wetlands INDIA
• Kerela, Kuttanad wetlands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai, Tirunelveli district INDIA
• Andra Pradesh, West Godavari district INDIA
• Assam, Kaziranga National Park INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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Page last updated on:2013-02-08

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