Parupeneus trifasciatus   (Lacepede,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: 23-35 cm.

Color: In alcohol specimens more or less yellowish brown, lighter below, a more or less pronounced black patch below first dorsal, a similar band below interspace between first and second dorsal, a shorter but broader one below second dorsal, spreading on base of that fin and continued on last produced ray, on caudal peduncle superiorly a black blotch of different extension preceded by a lighter patch, in fresh specimens yellow, a black band from snout to behind eye, which may be wanting before eye. Ventrals more or less dark, in life sometimes reddish or their posterior half with transverse bands, caudal with an inferior and superior dark margin. The coloration may be strongly faded. Occurs in 3 color forms that might represent different species. The Indian Ocean form has 2 sharply defined wedge-shaped bars become narrower and sometimes end on the belly. The Indo-Australian form has 3 very distinct dark patches and rows of yellow spots on the sides. The Pacific Plate form has 2 wide bars that extend to the belly.

Oblong, compressed, dorsal profile more convex than ventral, height 3.27 to 3.55 below origin of first dorsal, rostro-occipital profile nearly straight ascending and continued in convex but not elevated dorsal profile. Head acute, 2.9 to 3 in length, much longer than high, pointed. Eye rather small, 5.2 to 6.3 in head up, at a distance from hind margin of operculum about equal to one and a half eye diameter, and according to age, more than two or three diameters from vertical through end of snout. Snout long, pointed, 1.65 to 2.2 in length of head. Mouth small, nearly horizontal, lips thick, mandibula somewhat included. Maxilla rounded behind, its terminal width more than diameter of eye, its distance from vertical through front border of eye, equal to diameter of eye. Barbels nearly reaching base of ventrals. Gillrakers 27 to 28 on lower part of first branchial arch, the lowest small or rudimentary. Scales reaching nostrils, wanting on praeorbital. First dorsal spine minute, second rigid and pungent, shorter than third and fourth, which are subequal, 1.58 to 1.7 in head, and when depressed, extending to origin of second dorsal. Interspace between both dorsals covered by two rows of scales, its length equal to one third of length of base of first dorsal. Second dorsal truncate, its height about thrice in length of head, the last ray produced, reaching caudal (in young specimens not so far), anal slightly higher, its last ray not so far produced. Ventrals slightly less than length of head, in old specimens, longer than pectorals. Caudal shorter than head. Dorsal spines (total): 8 - 8, Dorsal soft rays (total): 9 - 9, Anal spines: 1, Anal soft rays: 7.

Uses its sensory chin barbels to probe the sea floor for hidden prey, preys after dark on such diurnal fishes as blennies and damsel fishes, probably taking them from where they shelter themselves at night.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Mullus trifasciatus Lacepede, 1802
Upeneus trifasciatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829
Upeneus trifasciatus Bleeker, 1851
Upeneus trifasciatus Gunther, 1859
Parupeneus trifasciatus Bleeker, 1863
Upeneus trifasciatus Kner, 1867
Parupeneus multifasciatus Bleeker, 1873
Mullus multifasciatus Jouan, 1873
Upeneus trifasciatus Gunther, 1875
Upeneus multifasciatus Day, 1888
Upeneus trifasciatus Macleay, 1882
Upeneus velifer Smith and Swain, 1882
Upeneus trifasciatus Sauvage, 1891
Upeneus trifasciatus Waite, 1899
Upeneus trifasciatus Fowler, 1900
Upeneus multifasciatus Seale, 1901
Pseudupeneus multifasciatus Jenkins, 1904
Pseudupeneus multifasciatus Jordan and Evermann, 1905
Pseudupeneus moana Jordan and Seale, 1906
Pseudupeneus moana Jordan and Snyder, 1906
Parupeneus trifasciatus Steindachner, 1906
Pseudupeneus moana Snyder, 1907
Pseudupeneus multifasciatus Kendall and Radcliffe, 1912
Parupeneus trifasciatus M. Weber, 1913
Upeneus multifasciatus Fowler and Bean, 1922
Upeneus moana Herre and Montalban, 1928
Upeneus multifasciatus Fowler, 1928
Mullus bifasciatus Lacepede, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Mullus trifasciatus Lacepede, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Parupeneus bifasciatus (Lacepede, 1801)
(Junior synonym)
Parupeneus crassilabrus (non Valenciennes, 1831)
(Misapplied name)
Pseudupeneus bifasciatus (Lacepede, 1801)
(Junior synonym)
Upeneus bifasciatus (Lacepede, 1801)
(Junior synonym)
Upeneus trifasciatus (Lacepede, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Parupenaeus bifasciatus (Lacepede, 1801)
Parupeneus bifaciatus (Lacepede, 1801)

Common Name (s)
• Galikaluoh (Mahl)
• Kalmanakkam (Malayalam)
• Doublebar Goatfish (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, ornamental fish)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Feeds on crustaceans at daytime and on fishes and crab larvae at night. Also feeds on worms.


• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin Coast INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA (Record: 09/02/1987-25/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep Islands INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Tamil Nadu, Kovalam INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2002) Lakshadweep Islands biodiversity strategy and action plan (Version: 3)
  • Heemstra, E; Heemstra, P; Smale, M; Hoopers, T and Pelicier, D (2004) Preliminary checklist of coastal fishes from the Mauritian island of Rodrigues Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis 38(23-24) 3315 - 3350 Available at - index/
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Durville, P; Chabanet, P and Quod, JP (2003) Visual Census of the Reef Fishes in the Natural Reserve of the Glorieuses Islands (Western Indian Ocean) Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. WIOMSA 2 95-104
  • Chabanet, P and Patrick, D (2005) Reef Fish Inventory of Juan De Novas Natural Park (Western Indian Ocean) Western Indian Ocean Journal Marine Sciences 2005 WIOMSA 4 145-162
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 3 Available at -
  • Kumar, RR and Edward, JKP (2005) Comparative study on the fish assemblages in natural and artificial reefs in Tuticorin, Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 99-104 Available at -
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at -
  • Kumaran, M; Murty, VS and Lalmohan, RS (1989) Resources of ornamental fishes Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 46-64 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (2002) Marine ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep CMFRI Special Publication CMFRI 72 1-134 Available at -
  • Radhakrisnan, EV; Kathirvel, M; Devarajan, K; Vijayakumaran, M; Poovannan, P; Thangavelu, R; Hameed, KS; Sankaralingam, S; Ramakrishnan, A and Thangar, VS (1989) An unusual congregation of organisms in the catches off Kovalam, Madras Marine fisheries information service ICAR 99 16-18 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-07-19

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