Solmundella bitentaculata   (Quoy & Gaimard,  1833) (Hydrozoan)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Hydrozoa
Order:Narcomedusae
Family:Aeginidae

Image copyrights: Michigan Science Art

Description
Size: Up to 12 mm high by 15 mm wide.

The umbrella is bell-shaped. The jelly is thick, especially in the upper half. The stomach is broad, circular and short with a simple circular mouth. There are 8 rectangular stomach pouches on which the gonads are located. There are 2 long tentacles emerging on either side of the body from above the stomach.


Synonym (s)
Solmundella bitentaculata (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833)
(Senior synonym)
Charybdea bitentaculata Quoy & Gaimard, 1833
(Senior synonym)

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Estuarine

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Island (Lat: 7.24) (Long: 93.74) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Dharamtar Estuary (Lat: 18.75) (Long: 72.84) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Kerala, Off Kochi, Fairway Buoy (Lat: 9.95) (Long: 76.16) INDIA (Record: 05/1968, 08/1968)
• Kerala, Trivandrum Coast INDIA
• Southwest Coast INDIA (Record: 04/1988-05/1988)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai Harbour (Lat: 18.70) (Long: 72.85) INDIA (Record: 09/1984-11/1985) (Depth: 2.5-14 mts)
• Maharashtra, Dharamtar Creek (Lat: 18.86) (Long: 73.02) INDIA (Record: 09/1984-11/1985) (Depth: 2.5-14 mts)
• Bay of Bengal INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Backwaters INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vasishta Godavari estuary INDIA (Record: 10/1981-06/1983)
• Exclusive Economic Zone INDIA (Record: 1986-1990) (Depth: 150 mts)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai Harbour-Thane creek system INDIA (Record: 10/1985-09/1986) (Depth: 6-10 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Beebe, CW (1910) XXVII. Catalogue of the pheasants, peafowl, jungle fowl and spur fowl in the Indian Museum Records of the Indian Museum ZSI 5(Part IV) 263-275 Available at - Pune University, Pune
  • Conway, DVP; White, RG; Hugues-Dit-Ciles, J; Gallienne, CP and Robins, DB (2003) Guide to the coastal and surface zooplankton of the south western Indian Ocean Occasional publication no 15 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom Occasional Publication of the Marine Biological association of the United Kingdom 354 pp Available at - http://www.mba.ac.uk/nmbl/publications/occpub/pdf/occ_pub_15.pdf
  • Michel, HB; Behbehani, M and Herring, D (1986) Zooplankton of the western Arabian Gulf south of Kuwait waters Kuwait Bulletin of Marine Science 8(1435) 13150 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Panikkar, NK (1973) Hand book to the international zooplankton collections Volume. 5 Indian Ocean Biological Center 5 1-210 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Santhakumari, V and Nair, VR (1999) Distribution of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences CSIR, New Delhi 28 150-157 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Santhakumari, V; Tiwari, LR and Nair, VR (1999) Species composition, abundance and distribution of hydromedusae from Dharamtar estuarine system, adjoning Bombay harbour Indian Journal of Marine Sciences CSIR, New Delhi 28 158-162 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Myers, P; Espinosa, R; Parr, CS; Jones, T; Hammond, GS and Dewey, TA (2006) Animal diversity web Available at - http://animaldiversity.org.
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Vannucci, M; Santhakumari, V and dos Santos, EP (1970) The ecology of hydromedusae from the Cochin area Marine Biology Springer Berlin 7(1) 49-58 Available at - http://www.springerlink.com/content/p0216458384h1867/fulltext.pdf
  • Santhakumari, V and Peter, KJ (1993) Relative abundance and diel variation of zooplankton from south west coast of India Journal of the Indian Fisheries Association Indian Fisheries Association 23 73-85 Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/handle/2264/2783
  • Tiwari, LR and Nair, VR (2002) Plankton biodiversity of Dharamtar creek adjoining Mumbai harbour Proceedings of the National Seminar on Creeks, Estuaries and Mangroves - Pollution and Conservation Vidya Prasarak Mandal's B.N. Bandodkar College of Science; Thane, India 96-102p Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/handle/2264/1356
  • Jitlang, I; Pattarajinda, S; Mishra, R and Wongrat, L (2007) Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Zooplankton in the Bay of Bengal The Ecosystem-Based Fishery Management in the Bay of Bengal 65-92 Available at - http://map.seafdec.org/downloads/BIMSTEC/010-Zooplankton-Issaporn.pdf
  • Sastry, AGRS and Chandramohan, P (1989) Planktonic coelenterates of Vasishta Godavari estuary, east coast of India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Scientific Publishers 18 160-164 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Silas, EG and Pillai, PP (1975) Dynamics of zooplankton in a tropical estuary (Cochin backwater), with a review on the plankton fauna of the environment 7(2) 329-355 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Santhakumari, V (1997) Species composition, distribution and abundance of hydromedusae in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the east coast of India Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory Sirahama 38(1-2) 53-61 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Santhakumari, V; Ramaiah, N and Nair, VR (1997) Ecology of hydromedusae from Bombay Harbour - Thana and Bassein creek estuarine complex Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources 26(2) 162-168 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-02-06

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