Holothuria atra   Jaeger,  1833 (Sea Cucumber)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Holothuroidea

Length: 600 mm

Color: Uniformly black

It is covered with a fine coating of sand. It lies out in the open and occurs on the dead coral reef flats. It prefers to live in areas which are abundant in the calcareous alga Halmeda sp., on which it feeds.

Synonym (s)
Halodeima atra Jaeger 1933
Holothuria amboinensis

Common Name (s)
• Lollyfish (English)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Halmeda sp. (alga)


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nicobar Island (Lat: 7.24) (Long: 93.74) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Southwest Coast INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA (Record: 1977-1979)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Koehler, R (1910) VIII. Description D-Holothuries nouvelles appartenant au Musee Indien Records of the Indian Museum ZSI 5(Part I) 89-103 Available at - Pune University, Pune
  • Nagabhushanam, AK and Krishnan, S (1993) Observations on the distribution of some of the marine organism inhabiting the inter-tidal zone along the western continental shelf of the Bay of Bengal, with particular reference to the Tamil Nadu coastal strip Records of the Zoological Survey of India 93(3-4) 449-490 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Samyn, Y; VandenSpiegel, D and Massin, C (2005) Sea cucumbers of the Comoros Archipelago SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 22 14-18
  • Martens, EE and De Clerck, GG (1994) Interstitial and parasitic Platyhelminthes from the coast of the Seychelles Oceanic reefs of the Seychelles: report on a cruise of RV Tyro to the Seychelles in 1992 and 1993 National Museum of Natural History, Leiden 97-106 Available at - Zoological Records
  • Laxminarayana, A (2005) Induced spawning and larval rearing of the sea cucumbers, Bohadschia marmorata and Holothuria atra in Mauritius Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 22 48-52 Available at - ZOOR14201004485
  • Behairy, AKA; Beltagi, S and Rao, NVND (1985) Grain-size selection and carbonate sediment processing by sea cucumber Holothuria atra (Jaeger) in the shallow marine environment of Jeddah, eastern Red Sea Journal of the Faculty of Marine Science Jeddah 4 67-77 Available at - ZOOR12400040170
  • James, DB (1985) Echinoderm fauna of the proposed national park in the gulf of Mannar Proceedings of the Symposium on endangered marine animals and parks Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 1 403-406 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • James, DB (2001) Twenty sea cucumbers from seas around India Naga, The ICLARM Quarterly 24(1 & 2) 4-8 Available at - http://www.worldfishcenter.org/Naga/Naga24-1&2/pdf/features.pdf
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Starfish Available at - http://www.starfish.ch/
  • (1995) Studies on the biology, ecology and fishery of the sea cucumber Holothuria (Metriatyla) scabra Jaeger from south east coast of India Mariculture Research under the Postgraduate Programme in Mariculture ICMFR Special Publication ICMFR 61 13-17 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/cgi/users/login?target=http%3A%2F%2Feprints.cmfri.org.in%2F6728%2F1%2FTH_44.pdf
  • George, KC; Thomas, PA; Appukuttan, KK and Gopakumar, G (1986) Ancillary living marine resources of Lakshadweep Marine Fisheries Information Service CMFRI, Cochin 68 46-50 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/4386/1/Article_13.pdf
  • Rao, GC (1991) Distribution of plants and animals on the rocky sea shores of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 7(2) 30-42 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-12-23

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