Ceratium tripos [Status Unaccepted]   (O.F. Muller, 1777) Nitzsch,  1817 (Dinoflagellate)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Chromista
Phylum:Myzozoa
Class: Peridinea
Order:Gonyaulacida
Family:Ceratiaceae

Description
Very variable, large species. Body approximately as broad as long or longer. Epitheca low, frequently twice as broad as long. Triangular epitheca that abruptly forms straight apical horn. Left side contour concave, right side strongly convex. Hypotheca as long as the anterior body or a little longer, its left side contour more or less concave. When hypothecal horns (closed) well developed, almost parallel with apical horn. All the horns robust. Right posterior horn generally clearly weakly developed than left, diverges little towards apical horn, often runs parallel with it, rarely converging. Direction of left posterior horn often corresponds with the right. Sometimes, in old individuals winged lists develop. Very variable as regards size and form of body as well as relative size and direction of the three horns, naturally also in the form of armour structure. Causes of variability known only in part. Temperature and salinity are believed to bring about the variations. Surface with linear markings; rugose.

Reproduction is both sexual and asexual.


Synonym (s)
Cercaria tripos O.F. Muller, 1781
(Homotypic synonym)
Ceratium schroederi Nie, 1936
Cercaria tripos O. F. Miiller, 1786
Peridinium tripos Ehrenberg, 1833
Ceratium tripos f. balticum Schutt, 1892
Ceratium arcuatum Vanhoffen, 1897
Ceratium neglectum Ostenfeld, 1903
Ceratium tripos var. atlanticum Ostenfeld, 1903
Ceratium tripos f. subsalsam Ostenfeld, 1903
Ceratium tripos f. hiemale Paulsen, 1908
Ceratium tripos f. neglecta (Osterf.) Paulsen, Jorgensen, 1911
Ceratium tripos pulchellum f. tripodioides Jorgensen, 1920
Ceratium pulchellum f. tripodioides Jorgensen, 1920
Ceratium tripos f. ponticum Jorgensen, Schiller, 1937
Ceratium pulchellum var. indicum Bohm, 1931
Ceratium tripodioides (Jorgensen) Steemann Nielsen, 1934
Ceratium tripos f. tripodioides (Jorg.) Paulsen, Schiller, 1937

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Dangers
(It is known for producing dangerous toxins, particularly when in large numbers, called "red tides" because the cells are so abundant they make water change color. Also they can produce non-fatal or fatal amounts of toxins in predators (particularly shellfish) that may be eaten by humans.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Pelagic, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer
Predator:  Marine microorganisms and animal larvae

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Porto Novo (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• West Bengal, Prentice Island INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake (Lat: 19.77) (Long: 85.33) INDIA
• West Coast INDIA
• Orissa, Gopalpur (Lat: 19.1) (Long: 84.93) INDIA (Record: 02/2004-01/2005)
• East Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove INDIA (Record: 04/1980-03/1982)
• Tamil Nadu, Cooum Estuary (Lat: 13.16) (Long: 80.26) INDIA (Record: 04/1998-03/1999)
• Karnataka, Netravati Estuary INDIA (Record: 02/1993-05/1994)
• Kerala, Kayankulam INDIA (Record: 1990-1991)
• Arabian Sea INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Backwaters INDIA (Record: 1970-1972)
• Kerala, Kodikkal INDIA
• West Bengal, Hugli Matla Estuary INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam Harbour INDIA (Record: 1984-1986)
• Tamil Nadu, Vedaranyam (Lat: 10.27) (Long: 79.39) INDIA (Record: 10/2007-03/2010)
• Tamil Nadu, Vedaranyam (Lat: 10.82) (Long: 79.88) INDIA (Record: 10/2007-03/2010)
• East Coast (Lat: 10) (Long: 79) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-08/2002)
• East Coast (Lat: 21) (Long: 94) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-08/2002)

Literature Source(s)
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  • Black Sea Available at - http://blacksea-education.ru/blacksea.shtml

Page last updated on:2012-03-01

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