Ceratium furca [Status Unaccepted]   (Ehrenberg) Claparede & Lachmann,  1859 (Dinoflagellate)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Chromista
Phylum:Myzozoa
Class: Peridinea
Order:Gonyaulacida
Family:Ceratiaceae

Image copyrights: Jean-Marie Cavanihac

Description
Color: More yellow than brown

Large species with two unequal, parallel or slightly divergent hypothecal horns; right horn shorter than left. Cells contain numerous yellow-brown chloroplasts. The cells are straight, slightly dorso-ventrally flattened and widest at the cingulum area. The epitheca gradually tapering and drawn out into a long or short anterior horn. Posterior horns parallel to slightly divergent; the left one robust and approximately double as long as the right; both generally end in a point. The hypotheca is subtrapezoid, extending into a long left and a short right antapical horn, which are usually straight in line with the cell and may be slightly toothed along the sides. The left one is twice as long asthe right. The thecal plates are ornamented with a reticulum of ridges and pores. Plates in the central area on the ventral side are very delicate. The nucleus is situated in the epicone.
Plate formula: 4` 5`` 4c 5``` 2```` plus ventral plates and reduced sulcal plates. It is both a heterotrophic (eat other organisms) and autotrophic (photosynthetic).

Reproduction is both sexual and asexual.


Synonym (s)
Peridinium furca Ehrenberg, 1836
Ceratium hircus Schroder, Schiller, 1937
Ceratium furca var. berghii (Jbrg.) Schiller, 1937
Ceratium furca var. eugrammum (Ehrenb.) Jorgen-ien, 1911

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Dangers
(It is known for producing dangerous toxins, particularly when in large numbers, called "red tides" because the cells are so abundant they make water change color. Also they can produce non-fatal or fatal amounts of toxins in predators (particularly shellfish) that may be eaten by humans.)

Ecology
Habitat:  Pelagic, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Producer
Predator:  Marine microorganisms and animal larvae

Biogeography


• Karnataka, Gurupur Estuary INDIA (Record: 01/1993-12/1993)
• Goa, Terekhol Estuary (Lat: 15.72) (Long: 73.7) INDIA
• Karnataka, Gangavali Estuary (Lat: 15.58) (Long: 74.25) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Kalavali Estuary (Lat: 16.25) (Long: 73.67) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Porto Novo (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• West Bengal, Prentice Island INDIA
• West Bengal, Chandanpiri INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake (Lat: 19.77) (Long: 85.33) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Daman and Diu, Mul Dwarka (Lat: 20.93) (Long: 70.79) INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Fishing Harbour (Lat: 21.13) (Long: 70.4) INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval (Lat: 21.13) (Long: 70.4) INDIA
• Goa, Mandovi and Zuari Estuary INDIA (Record: 11/1979-10/1980)
• Orissa, Gopalpur (Lat: 19.1) (Long: 84.93) INDIA (Record: 02/2004-01/2005)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove INDIA (Record: 04/1980-03/1982)
• Kerala, Kadinamkulam Backwater INDIA (Record: 10/1991-09/1992)
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 18/05/2001-21/05/2001, 18/11/2001-21/11/2001)
• Karnataka, Netravati Estuary INDIA (Record: 02/1993-05/1994)
• West Bengal, Sundarban Estuary INDIA (Record: 04/1995-01/1998)
• Kerala, Kayankulam INDIA (Record: 1990-1991)
• Red Sea
• Arabian Sea INDIA
• Gulf of Aden
• Bay of Bengal INDIA (Record: 06/07/2001-02/08/2001)
• Kerala, Kochi Backwaters INDIA (Record: 1970-1972)
• Karnataka, Old Port of Mangalore (Lat: 12.86) (Long: 74.88) INDIA (Record: 28/12/2005 - 13/01/2006)
• Gujarat, Veraval INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangroves (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.76) INDIA (Record: 01/1985-12/1985)
• Kerala, Vaadi INDIA
• Kerala, Kavanad INDIA
• Kerala, Punnapra INDIA
• Kerala, Azheekode INDIA
• Kerala, Balathuruthu INDIA
• Kerala, Kodikkal INDIA
• Kerala, Mahe INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Backwaters INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kaduviyar estuary INDIA (Record: 10/2005-09/2006)
• Karnataka, North Kanara Coast INDIA
• Kerala, Alleppey, Ambalapuzha Coast INDIA (Record: 1971-1972)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam Harbour INDIA (Record: 1984-1986)
• Tamil Nadu, Vedaranyam (Lat: 10.27) (Long: 79.39) INDIA (Record: 10/2007-03/2010)
• Tamil Nadu, Vedaranyam (Lat: 10.82) (Long: 79.88) INDIA (Record: 10/2007-03/2010)
• East Coast (Lat: 10) (Long: 79) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-08/2002)
• East Coast (Lat: 21) (Long: 94) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-08/2002)
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA

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Page last updated on:2012-03-27

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