Herdmania pallida   (Heller,  1878) (Sea Squirt)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Ascidiacea

Image copyrights: Arjan Gittenberger

Size: 9.5 cm * 7 cm * 4 cm.

Solitary ascidian. Fairly large, oblong to pyriform, compressed laterally. Siphons more or less prominent, widely separated and cross slit, each with four lips. Test is thick, translucent and cartilaginous. Mantle is thin, weak in musculature. Tentacles are compound, much branched of four sizes. Nine wide folds and one narrow folds on each side. Dorsal tubercle is large, hemispherical with two spiral coils. Dorsal lamina is a thin flap bearing 20 to 30 languets. Stomach is elongated with two digestive livers. Anus with four flaps.

Gonads are long, obliquely placed on each side.

Synonym (s)
Cynthia pallida Heller, 1878
(Original combination)
Cynthia rosea Sluiter, 1887
(Original combination)
Halocynthia pallida (Heller, 1878)
(New combination)
Pyura ceylonica (Herdman, 1906)
(New combination)
Pyura pallida (Heller, 1878)
(New combination)
Rhabdocynthia ceylonica Herdman, 1906
(Original combination)
Rhabdocynthia pallida (Heller, 1878)
(New combination)

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Rocky, Coastal


• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Harbour INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Ennur INDIA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam Bay INDIA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam Bay (Lat: 8.37) (Long: 76.93) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chinnamuttom (Lat: 8.1) (Long: 77.56) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Leepuram (Lat: 8.11) (Long: 77.55) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin (Lat: 8.75) (Long: 78.20) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Kadiapattanam (Lat: 8.12) (Long: 77.30) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Tiruchendur (Lat: 8.48) (Long: 78.11) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Manapad (Lat: 8.37) (Long: 78.06) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Uvari (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 77.89) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Kudankulam (Lat: 8.16) (Long: 77.71) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Pozhikarai (Lat: 8.10) (Long: 77.40) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Colachel (Lat: 8.16) (Long: 77.26) INDIA (Record: 2002-2003)

Literature Source(s)
  • Sebastian, VO and Kunian, CV (1981) Classification of Ascidians 1-163 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Nagabhushanam, AK and Krishnan, S (1993) Observations on the distribution of some of the marine organism inhabiting the inter-tidal zone along the western continental shelf of the Bay of Bengal, with particular reference to the Tamil Nadu coastal strip Records of the Zoological Survey of India 93(3-4) 449-490 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Abdul, JAH and Sivakumar, V (2007) Occurrence and distribution of ascidians in Vizhinjam Bay (south west coast of India) Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 342(1) 189-190 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2006.10.041
  • Gittenberger, A The Dutch ascidians homepage Available at - http://www.ascidians.com/
  • Jaffarali, HA; Sivakumar, V and Selvi, MT (2010) New records of colonial Ascidians from the South West coast of India Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research IDOSI Publications 5(5) 366-373 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr5%285%29/9.pdf
  • Jaffar Ali, AH; Sivakumar, V and Tamilselvi, M (2009) Distribution of Alien and Cryptogenic Ascidians along the Southern Coasts of Indian Peninsula World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 1(4) 305-312 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms1%284%2909/9.pdf
  • Meenakshi, VK; Renganathan, TK; Senthamarai, S and Jeyalakshmi, J (2003) Marine biodiversity - Taxonomy of Indian Ascidians Technical report Available at - Biodiversity Informatics Group, NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-02-23

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