Argyrops spinifer   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Mya Than Tun

Size: Maximum 65 cm; common to 30 cm.

Max. weight reported: 3500 g.

Color: Body mainly silvery pinkish, but the head is darker; usually dark red on margin of upper part of opercle; all fins red. Young fish with several vertical red bars on body.

It is a deep-bodied, strongly compressed and robust fish. Dorsal profile much arched. Depth of head much greater than its length, especially so in large specimens, upper profile of head steep and almost straight or slightly concave from upper jaw to eye; eyes large, close to front profile. Upper jaw (maxilla) reaching to vertical through front border of eye. Four canines in front of upper jaw and 3 rows of molars on each side; in lower jaw 6 much smaller canines and 2 rows of molars on each side behind them. The fins are well developed. Dorsal fin with 11 or 12 spines and 10 or 11 soft rays, the first two spines very short, 3rd to 5th spines(sometimes to 7th) flattened and much elongated (in young fish reaching to level of caudal fin, shorter in older fish); soft dorsal fin rays all approximately equal in length. Anal fin with 3 spines and 8 or 9 soft rays, the 1st spine short, 2nd and 3rd of equal length or 2nd slightly longer. The caudal fin is emarginate to slightly forked with its lobes pointed. Pectoral fins are long and reach as far as the mid-anal. The lateral line is distinctly visible and has 50-54 series of large scales running along its length; soft parts of dorsal and anal fins with a low scaly sheath.

Max. age reported: 12 years.

Synonym (s)
Calamus ciliaris (von Bonde, 1923)
Pagrus ciliaris von Bonde, 1923
Sparus spinifer Forsskal, 1775
Pagrus spinifer Day, 1876
Sparus spinifer (Forsskal, 1775)

Common Name (s)
• Red Bokako (English)
• Longspine Seabream (English)
• King Soldier Bream (English)
• Bowen Snapper (English)
• Longspined Seabream (English)
• Long Spined Red Bream (English)
• Pununtlai (Tamil)
• Punanthalai (Tamil)
• Kooroota (Telugu)
• Palu (Marathi)
• Long-spine Silver-bream (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, important food fish, marketed fresh or frozen)
Cultured:  Unknown

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Demersal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, mainly molluscs
Predator:  Sharks, rays (eg. Carcharhinus limbatus) (Carcharhinidae), mollusc


• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Gulf of Oman
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 6.66) (Long: 93.85) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 47 mts)
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Coromandel Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Ocean Biogeographic Information System Available at -
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Subba Rao, NV and Sastry, DRK (2005) Fauna of Marine National Park, Gulf of Kuchchh (Gujarat) ZSI 79 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • AlGhais, SM and Kardousha, MM (1994) Study on some helminth parasites larvae common in Arabian Gulf fish: A comparison between west and east coasts of UAE Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research 12(3) 559-571 Available at - ZOOR:ZOOR13200013405
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at -
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at -
  • Balachandran, K and Nizar, MA (1990) A check list of fishes of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India collected during the research cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada Proceedings of the first workshop on scientific results of FORV Sagar Sampada CMFRI, Cochin 305-324 Available at -
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Bapat, SV; Deshmukh, VM; Krishnamoorthi, B; Muthiah, C; Kagwade, PV; Ramamirtham, CP; Mathew, KJ; Pillai, SK and C. Mukundan (1982) Species composition, distribution and abundance of major groups/species Fishery resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the NorthWest coast of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Kochi 33 1-86 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-17

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