Leiognathus lineolatus   (Valenciennes,  1835) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Hermosa, Jr., G.V.

Size: 9-10 cm.

Color: Silvery, back grayish or violaceous with dark irregular spots, snout brown, fins hyaline. Back has few grey irregular marks from behind head to upper angle of caudal base. Laterally, they extend down to a little below the lateral line, the lowermost marks in the form of about nine round or irregular blotches arranged in a row. Some of the marks may be diffuse, irregular semicircles or circles. The ventral half of body with fine black dots. Tip of snout dotted black. Dorsals, pectorals and ventrals colourless. Inner side of pectoral base dotted black as also the edge of lower half of gill opening covered by opercular flap. The upper and lowermost caudal rays dusky as also the margins of caudal lobes.

Compressed, oblong, dorsal and ventral profile equally convex, rostro-occipital profile ascending in a straight line with a slight frontal concavity, thence dorsal profile with a slight nuchal elevation. Height 2.46 to 3.0 [3.0-3.6 with caudal], head pointed, 3.4-3.7 [3.9-4.5 with caudal] in length. Eye 2.5-3 in head, equal to inter orbital space and equal to or somewhat shorter than snout. Inter orbital space bordered on each side by a smooth supra orbital ridge, continued as outer border of nuchal spine, which is longer than eye, inter orbital space concave with a median ridge, in large specimens nuchal spine with a median ridge, in large specimens nachal spine with a conspicuous median ridge, a pair of postnasal spines, the outer spine conspicuous, directed hind wards. Snout when protracted strongly directed downwards, longer than half length of head. Commencement of gape of mouth opposite lower third of eye. Praeoperculum with rounded angle, its lower margin straight, minutely denticulate. Teeth minute in a single series in jaws. Scales relatively of medium size, conspicuous, adherent, covering also the breast, lateral line much less convex than dorsal profile, terminating before end of dorsal. Dorsal spines slender, the second to fourth subequal, the second about half height of body, longer than second anal which is shorter than head. Pectorals about equal to head without snout. Ventrals two-third of that length. Caudal deeply incised, the lobes acute.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Equula lineolata Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1835
Equula lineolata Bleeker, 1852
Equula lineolata Gunther, 1860
Leiognathus lineolatus Bleeker, 1865
Equula lineolatus Day, 1888
Equula lineolata De Vis, 1884
Equula lineolata Nystrom, 1887
Equula lineolata Perugia, 1889
Leiognathus vermiculatus Fowler, 1904
Equula lineolata M. Weber, 1913
Leiognathus lineolatum Jordan, 1913
Equula lineolata Valenciennes, 1835

Common Name (s)
• Ornate Ponyfish (English)
• Lined Pony -fish (English)
• Karal
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial

Habitat:  Demersal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, small crustaceans, chaetognaths, nematodes, bivalves, gastropods and nekton
Predator:  Bony fish (Euthynnus affinis)


• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Bay of Bengal INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 30 mts)
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram, Thangachimadam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kovalam INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 13.75) (Long: 94.25) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 6.75) (Long: 92.16) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Kuronuma, K and Abe, Y (1986) Fishes of the Arabian Gulf Fishes of the Arabian Gulf 1-356 Available at - ZOOR12500001320
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 2 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Balachandran, K and Nizar, MA (1990) A check list of fishes of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India collected during the research cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada Proceedings of the first workshop on scientific results of FORV Sagar Sampada CMFRI, Cochin 305-324 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/5269/1/43.pdf
  • James, PSBR (1975) A systematic review of the fishes of the family Leiognathidae Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 17 (1) 138-172 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1445/1/James_138-172.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Radhakrisnan, EV; Kathirvel, M; Devarajan, K; Vijayakumaran, M; Poovannan, P; Thangavelu, R; Hameed, KS; Sankaralingam, S; Ramakrishnan, A and Thangar, VS (1989) An unusual congregation of organisms in the catches off Kovalam, Madras Marine fisheries information service ICAR 99 16-18 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Roy, SD; Rajan, PT and Soundararajan, S (2006) Marine food fishes of Andaman and Nicobar islands Fishing Chimes 25(10) 108-110 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-30

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