Stolus buccalis   (Simpson,  1885) (Sea Cucumber)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Holothuroidea

Image copyrights: W.Australian Museum

Color: Purple in living condition; white in alcohol. Introvert semi-transparent lighter in colour than body with a crown of ten dark tentacles of which ventral pair is small.

Skin thick and rigid. Tube-feet not confined to radii but scattered over entire body surface. Calcareous ring complex, composed of a number of pieces. Radials large, each with a notch at anterior end and two long posterior processes. Digestive tract a simple coiled tube without any differentiation into parts. Both branches of respiratory trees of equal size, sparsely branched, arising from posterior portion of rectum. Cloacal retractors well developed. Paired radial muscles narrow, retractors well developed. Four types of calcareous deposits present in different parts of skin, (i) Small rods with expanded ends each end with a hole at the centre, such rods are found in the tentacles (ii) Large oval buttons with twelve knobs and four holes thickly packed throughout body wall. Buttons have two handles, one on either side, thus appearing bulged in lateral view. (iii) Irregular thin buttons with four to many holes found both in tentacles and introvert (iv) Large supporting plates found in tube-feet. These are fusiform, usually with four holes in centre and one to five holes on either side.

Synonym (s)
Stolus sacellus Selenka, 1867
Stereoderma murrayi Bell, 1883
Thyone (Stolus) rigida Semper, 1867
Thyone buccalis Stimpson, 1855
Thyone buccalis bourdesae Domantay, 1962
Thyone buccalis var. pallida Clark, 1938

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Benthic


• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• SRI LANKA (Record: 1971)
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram (Lat: 9.28) (Long: 79.36) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79.15) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Subba Rao, NV and Sastry, DRK (2005) Fauna of Marine National Park, Gulf of Kuchchh (Gujarat) ZSI 79 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • James, DB (1985) Echinoderm fauna of the proposed national park in the gulf of Mannar Proceedings of the Symposium on endangered marine animals and parks Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 1 403-406 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Kumara, PBTP; Cumaranathunga, PRT and Linden, O (2005) Present status of the sea cucumber fishery in southern Sri Lanka: A resource depleted industry SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 22 24-29 Available at -
  • James, DB (1983) Research on Indian echinoderms-A review Journal of Marine Biological association of India The Marine Biological Association of India. 25(1&2) 91-108 Available at -
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at -
  • Sastry, DRK (2007) Echinodermata of India : An annotated list Records of Zoological Survey of India Occassional paper No. 271 ZSI, Kolkata 1-387 Available at -
  • James, DB (1989) Echinoderms of Lakshadweep and their zoogeography Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 97-144 Available at -
  • James, DB (1966) Studies on Indian Echinoderms - 2 The holothurian Stolus buccalis (Stimpson) with notes on its systematic position Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 8 (2) 285-289 Available at -
  • North Australian Sea Cucumbers Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-05-05

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