Phalium (Semicassis) bisulcatum   (Schubert & Wagner,  1829) (Sea Snail)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Gastropoda

Size: 23-71 mm.

Color: Cream, whitish or bluish gray and with or without 5 or 6 spiral rows of small or large yellowish to reddish brown spots which may coalesce spirally or axially. Last varix of varying thickness, white or with brown or mauve color bars. Inside of outer lip white and with weak or strong, numerous, small teeth. Inside of aperture white, tan or brown.

Shell about 1-3 inches in length, ovate-globose, smooth or spirally striate, thin or thick-shelled, with or without 5 or 6 spiral rows of reddish to yellowish brown, squarish spots, and with a rugose or spirally lirate columellar shield. A very variable species. Nuclear whorls 3 to 3½, bulimoid, slightly tilted, smooth, glossy, white or tan. Early postnuclear whorls with 4 to 7 small, beaded, irregularly-sized, spiral threads. Last two whorls usually smoothly rounded, but may be slightly shouldered due to 2 to 4 strong spiral cords below the impressed suture. Body whorl may be smooth or with numerous fine, incised lines, or with numerous crowded, coarse, spiral cords which may be smooth or weakly beaded. Spire with 1 to 5 former varices.

Synonym (s)
Buccinum tessellatum Wood, 1840
Cassis scrobiculata Menke, 1830
Cassis pila Reeve, 1942
Cassis bisulcata Schubert and Wagner, 1829
Phalium (Semicassis) bisulcatum Abbott, 1968
Phalium (Semicassis) bisulcatum Mookherjee, 1985

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Sandy, Muddy


• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast INDIA (Record: 22/01/1957)
• Tamil Nadu, Tharangambadi INDIA (Record: 2/2/1957, 1991)
• Tamil Nadu, Virapandianpatnam INDIA (Record: 27/01/1978)
• Tamil Nadu, Shingle Island INDIA (Record: 1985, 1991)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA (Record: 1985, 1991)
• Pondicherry, Karaikal INDIA (Record: 1985, 1991)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA
• Zanzibar Island TANZANIA
• Persian Gulf
• Gulf of Oman
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Chandipur INDIA (Record: 31/01/1972)
• Orissa, Off Gopalpur INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Abbott, RT (1968) The Helmet shells of the world (Cassidae) Indo-Pacific Mollusca The department of Mollusks, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 19th and the Parkway Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 2(9) 15-202 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Rao, NVS; Rao, KVS and Maitra, S (1991) Marine molluscs State fauna series 1: Fauna of Orissa Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta Part 3 1-175 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2010-07-21

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