Barnea candida   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Piddock)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Bivalvia

Image copyrights: MAGNI

Max. size: 6.5 cm; length 32.85-74.55 mm; width 12.61-26.6 mm; height 25.4-13.58 mm

Color: Shell is white with a yellowish or light brown periostracum.

The shell is fragile, narrowly elongate and oval. It has pronounced sculpturing anteriorly composed of concentric ridges crossed by ribs with spines. Barnea candida has large foot muscles and visceral mass, and is unable to retract completely within their shells. The anterior and posterior margins are rounded. The hinge line has a slender projection (apophysis) just below the beak of each valve which serves as the attachment area for the large foot muscles. The umbones are positioned in the anterior third of the shell with an accessory plate, the protoplax, placed dorsally in front of them. The margin is crenulate with spines about the posterior pedal gape, smooth elsewhere. The siphons of Barnea candida are of equal length and united. These can reach 4 to 5 times the length of the shell. The inhalent siphon has 10 to 12 large, and several small, hairs surrounding its opening whilst the exhalent siphon has none. Both siphons are pale brown in color and minutely papillose, and are tipped with a narrow band of red brown.

Synonym (s)
Pholas candida Linnaeus, 1758
Pholas backeri Subrahmanyam et. al, 1949
Barnea candida Abbott and Dance, 1982
Barnea spinosa Risso, 1826
Pholas candida cylindracea Marshall, 1914
Pholas candida var. subovata Jeffreys, 1865
Pholas costulata Goodall, 1890
Pholas cylindrica J. Sowerby, 1818
Pholas papyraceus Spengler, 1792

Common Name (s)
• White Piddock (English)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Demersal,Sandy,Muddy


• West Bengal, Sundarbans (Lat: 21.5) (Long: 88.17) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha INDIA (Record: 20/12/1965, 19/05/1983, 28/03/1984)
• West Bengal, Junput INDIA (Record: 08/03/1966)
• West Bengal, Bakkhali INDIA (Record: 27/01/1988)
• West Bengal, Medinipur INDIA
• West Bengal, South 24 Parganas INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• Orissa INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Ramakrishna; Sarkar, J and Talukdar, S (2003) Marine invertebrates of Digha coast and some recomendations on their conservation Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 101(3-4) 1 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Mandal, AK and Nandi, NC (1989) Fauna of Sundarban mangrove ecosystem, West Bengal, India Fauna of Conservations 3 35431 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • MarLIN: Marine life information network Biology and sensitivity key information sub-programme [on-line] Available at -
  • Sealifebase Available at -
  • Subba Rao, NV; Dey, A and Barua, S (1992) Estuarine and marine molluscs Fauna of West Bengal Part 9 (State fauna series 3) ZSI, Calcutta 129-268 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Dey, M and Mitra, A (2005) Molluscan community around Digha coast, West Bengal, India Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 2(1&2) 43-47 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rao, MV; Pati, SK; D. Swain; and Sharma, RM Marine wood-borers Zoological Survey of India 1-5 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-12-19

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