Panulirus homarus   (Linnaeus,  1758) (Spiny Lobster)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Malacostraca

Image copyrights: Alpex Marine Pvt. Ltd

Size: Maximum total body length 31 cm; average total body length 20 to 25 cm; carapace length 12 cm.

Color: Cephalothorax and abdomen bluish-gray, speckled with minute white spots, six to seven white spots on lateral region of carapace; blue line from postero-lateral corner of carapace to region of mouth parts terminates in a broad white patch, another one runs parallel to base of legs; spines on carapace light brown with yellow tips, antennular flagella banded brown and white; a blue line between eyes and on branchio-cardial groove; two lateral white spots on each abdominal segment; hinder third of telson, uropod and abdominal appendages bordered with cream colored lines; legs yellowish-brown, blotched with cream spots.

Two pairs of spines on antennular plate with three pairs of spinules in between; the three spines on fused coxicerite of antenna are minute, sub-equal and in a line. Two spines in middle line of gastric region in front of cervical groove placed in series. The crenulated grooves of the third, fourth and fifth abdominal somites are interrupted in the midway.

It is gregarious and nocturnal.

Synonym (s)
Cancer homarus Linnaeus, 1758
Panulirus dasypus H. Milne Edwards, 1837
Panulirus homarus Holthuis, 1946
Panulirus homarus Gordon, 1953
Panulirus dasypus Gravely, 1927
Panulirus burgeri Prasad and Tampi, 1959
Panulirus homarus George, 1963
Panulirus burgeri (De Haan, 1841)
Panulirus burgeri Calman, 1925

Common Name (s)
• Scalloped Spiny Lobster (English)
• Green Spiny Lobster (English)
• Thala eral
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, Marketed fresh and frozen. )

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Demersal, Sandy, Coastal
Predator:  Carcharhinus limbatus, Triakis megalopterus


• Gulf of Oman
• Karnataka, Netrani Island (Lat: 14) (Long: 74.32) INDIA (Record: 10/05/2006) (Depth: 12-15 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Kovalam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Arabian Sea INDIA
• Kerala, Trivandrum (Lat: 8.16) (Long: 77.18) INDIA (Depth: 5.48-18.28 mts)
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA (Record: 1977-1979)
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Katchall INDIA (Record: 01/1978-04/1978)
• Karnataka INDIA (Record: 2001-2007)
• Lakshadweep Islands (Lat: 11.68) (Long: 73.68) INDIA (Record: 01/1987-03/1987)
• Lakshadweep Islands (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 72.16) INDIA (Record: 01/1987-03/1987)
• West Bengal, South 24 Parganas INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2002) Some invertebrate species recorded in Indian Sunderbans West Bengal Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan(BSAP), Oct 2002
  • Pearl, TM; Reddy, PSR and Thangavelu, R (1987) On the endophragmal skeletons of spiny lobsters Panulirus homarus and P.ornatus Indian Journal of Fisheries 34(2) 218-222 Available at - NCL, Pune (ASFA Records)
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Nair, RV; Soundarajan, R and Nandakumar, G (1981) Observations on growth and moulting of spiny lobsters Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus), P.ornatus (Fabricius) and P. penicillatus (Olivier) in captivity Indian Journal of Fisheries 28(1-2) 25-35 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Jayakody, DS (1994) Reproductive biology of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus on the south coast of Sri Lanka The third Asian fisheries forum: proceedings of the Third Asian Fisheries Forum 26-30 October 1992, Singapore 454-456 Available at - Zoological Records
  • Kensley, B (1981) On the Zoogeography of Southern Afrian Decapod Crustacea, with a distributional checklist of the species Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 338 23377 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
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  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Zacharia, PU; Krishnakumar, PK; Dineshbabu, AP; Vijayakumaran, K; Rohit, P; Thomas, S; Sasikumar, G; Kaladharan, P; Durgekar, RN and Mohamed, KS (2008) Species assemblage in the coral reef ecosystem of Netrani Island off Karnataka along the southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 50(1) 87-97 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Vijayakumaran, M and Radhakrishnan, EV (2002) Changes in biochemical and mineral composition during ovarian maturation in the spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus) Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 44(1 & 2) 85-96 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at -
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • George, MJ and Rao, PV (1966) On some Decapod Crustaceans from the south-west coast of India Proceedings of Symposium on Crustacea Marine Biological Association of India, Mandapam Camp Part-I 327-336 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 5 Available at -
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at -
  • George, KC; Thomas, PA; Appukuttan, KK and Gopakumar, G (1986) Ancillary living marine resources of Lakshadweep Marine Fisheries Information Service CMFRI, Cochin 68 46-50 Available at -
  • Balaji,K; Thirumaran, G, Arumugam, R, Kumaraguruvasagam, KR and Anantharaman, P (2007) Marine ornamental invertebrate resources of Parangipettai coastal waters (south east coast of India) Journal of fisheries and aquatic science Academic Journals 2(5) 328-336 Available at -
  • Meiyappan, MM and Kathirvel, M (1978) On some new records of crabs and lobsters from Minicoy, Lakshadweep (Laccadives) Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 20(1-2) 116-119 Available at -
  • Shanmugam, S and Kathirvel, M (1983) Lobster resources and culture potential Mariculture potential of Andaman and Nicobar Islands-An indicative survey Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 61-65 Available at -
  • Dineshbabu, AP; Durgekar, RN and Zacharia, PU (2011) Estuarine and marine decapods of Karnataka inventory Fishing Chimes Mr.J.V.H. Dixitulu 30 (10-11) 20-24 Available at -
  • Rao, GS; Suseelan, C and Kathirvel, M (1989) Crustacean resources of the Lakshadweep islands Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 72-76 Available at -
  • Roy, MK (2010) Diversity and Distribution of Crustacea Fauna in wetlands of West Bengal Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 7(2) 147-187 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-12-15

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