Perna viridis   (Linneaus,  1758) (Mussel)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Bivalvia

Image copyrights: Amy Benson, US Geological Survey

Size: Length 80-100 mm, occasionally reaching 165 mm; width 5.50 mm; height 2.85 mm

Colour: Green or blue-green with brown patches.

The shell has a smooth exterior surface characterised by concentric growth lines and slightly concave ventral margin. The shell is covered with greenish (variable in older mussels) periostracum. Periostracum is generally intact in young ones and with patches peeled off in older ones. The colour of the perostracum is bright green in juveniles, fading to brown with green edges as it matures. The inner shell surface is smooth and iridescent with a bluish green hue. The ridge which supports the ligament connecting the two shell valves is finely pitted. The beak has interlocking teeth, one in the right valve and two in the left. Wavy posterior end of the pallial line and the large kidney-shaped retractor muscle scar are characteristic features. Anterior adductor muscle absent in this species. The foot is generally laterally compressed with no operculum. The family Mytilidae, to which this species belongs, is characterized by narrow, elliptical, fan-shaped, thin valves which are of the same size; the absence of prominent hinge teeth; anterior adductor muscle reduced or absent; and often the presence of byssal threads for anchoring to hard substrates.

Reproduction is sexual, sexes are separate, and fertilization is external. Onset of sexual maturity is rapid, occurring at 2-3 months of age in parts of the animal's native range and in as little as 1-2 months in parts of its non-native range. Male and female green mussels release gametes directly into the water column. As with many marine bivalves, the presence of gametes in the water can trigger other individuals to release gametes, thereby synchronizing spawning to a degree. Salinity reductions can also elicit spawning.

Adults sexually reproduce by releasing gametes into the water column where fertilisation takes place. Fertilised eggs develop into free swimming larvae after 7 or 8 hrs. Larvae remain in the water column for 2-3 weeks after which they settle and attach onto hard substrate using a byssus (Yap et al. 2002). Spawning normally occurs once or twice a year, with a peak during monsoonal periods, and may entail multiple spawning with rapid recovery (weeks) over a prolonged period of time (Rajagopal et al. 1998a and Rajagopal et al. 1998b). During their planktonic period, larvae will be widely dispersed by physical processes, but may aggregate periodically at certain depths through a variety of biological processes, most notably diel vertical migration (Folt and Burns, 1999). Juveniles may be able to reach sexual maturity within 2-3 months, and may live as long as 3 years. Adult populations may reach densities of 35,000 individuals per square metre.

Max. age : 3 years (approx.)

Synonym (s)
Mytilus smaragdinus Chemnitz, 1785
(Junior synonym)
Mytilus viridis Linnaeus, 1758
(Senior synonym)
Chloromya viridis Dodge, 1952
Mytilus (Chloromya) smaragdinus Jukes-Browne, 1905
Mytilus (Chloromya) viridis Lamy, 1936
Mytilus opalus Lamarck, 1819
Perna viridis Ahmed, 1974
Mytilus smaragdinus Chemnitz, 1785
Perna viridis Kuriakose and Nair, 1976
Perna viridis Kuriakose, 1980
Mytilus smaragdinus Gmelin, 1791)

Common Name (s)
• Green Mussel (English)
• Asian Green Mussel
• Green-lipped Mussel (English)
• Brown Mussel
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Ecosystem balance, Dangers
Possess high antiviral activity
Used as an indicator of biopollution.
It can cause problems with water systems of industrial complexes by clogging pipes, increasing corrosion and reducing efficiency. Fouling on mariculture equipment alters maintenance routines, harvest times and may restrict water flow thus effecting product quality. Perna viridis is able to outcompete many other fouling species, causing changes in community structure and trophic relationships. Perna viridis has also been recorded with high levels of accumulated toxins and heavy metals and is linked to shellfish poisoning in humans.)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Demersal, Estuarine, Rocky, Sandy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Zooplankton, phytoplankton, other suspended fine organic material.
Predator:  Takifugu oblongus


• Maharashtra, Konkan Coast (Lat: 18.08) (Long: 73.42) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban Island (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79.33) INDIA
• Goa (Lat: 15.4) (Long: 73.8) INDIA
• Orissa, Gopalpur (Lat: 19.23) (Long: 82.03) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Adirampattinam INDIA (Record: 17/2/2000)
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Orissa, Manikpatna INDIA (Record: 1913)
• West Bengal, Digha INDIA (Record: 28/03/1984)
• West Bengal, Medinipur INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Karnataka, Netrani Island (Lat: 14.01) (Long: 74.33) INDIA (Record: 08/05/2006) (Depth: -12 mts)
• East Coast, Coromandel, Pulicat Lake INDIA (Record: 1997-1998)
• Maharashtra, Bhatye Creek INDIA (Record: 06/1994)
• West Bengal, Subarnarekha Mouth INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2001)
• West Bengal, New Digha INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2001)
• West Bengal, Sankarpur INDIA (Record: 07/2000-06/2001)
• Kerala INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai (Lat: 12.55) (Long: 80.18) INDIA
• Orissa, Chandipur INDIA (Record: 03/11/1962)
• Orissa, Chhatrapur INDIA (Record: 24/11/1962)
• Orissa, Gopalpur INDIA (Record: 29/11/1962)
• Orissa, Ganjam, Sonnapur INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Bimlipatam INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Cuddalore INDIA
• Pondicherry INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Kerala, Alleppey INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan INDIA
• Maharashtra, Ratnagiri INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Maharashtra, Dabhol INDIA (Record: 12/1994, 12/1996)
• Tamil Nadu, Arockiapuram Coast (Lat: 8.10) (Long: 77.57) INDIA (Record: 09/1995-11/1995)
• Kerala, Kollam INDIA
• West Coast, Malabar INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada Bay INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.76) (Long: 79.82) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 11.89) (Long: 79.8) INDIA (Record: 01/2002-12/2003)
• Kerala, Vembanad Kol INDIA
• Maharashtra, Bhatia Creek INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lagoon (Lat: 19.46) (Long: 85.08) INDIA (Record: 07/2007-10/2007, 07/2008-10/2008)
• Orissa, Chilika Lagoon (Lat: 19.9) (Long: 85.63) INDIA (Record: 07/2007-10/2007, 07/2008-10/2008)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 79.8) (Long: 11.88) INDIA (Record: 01/2009)
• Pondicherry, Pondicherry mangrove (Lat: 79.81) (Long: 11.76) INDIA (Record: 01/2009)
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.76) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Reef Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kalpakkam INDIA (Record: 1987-1988)
• Tamil Nadu, Edaiyur Backwaters (Lat: 12.56) (Long: 80.18) INDIA (Record: 04/1988-03/1989)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Porto Novo (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.77) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 78.13) (Long: 8.58) INDIA (Record: 01/1994- 12/1995)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar (Lat: 79.5) (Long: 9.33) INDIA (Record: 01/1994- 12/1995)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair (Lat: 11.67) (Long: 92.75) INDIA

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