Dendronereides heteropoda   Southern,  1921 (Marine Worm)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Polychaeta

Size: Length 60-135 mm.

Color: Anterior region of the body rusty red. At the back of the head a narrow transverse band, or two elongate spots of brown pigment.

Body long and slender. Prostomium broad, slightly indented in front, with 2 small antennae. Tentacular cirri 4 pairs, longest pair reaching setiger 4-6. Pharynx eversible with soft papillae on both rings. Anterior feet with dorsal and ventral cirri. Biramous parapodia with 2- notopodial ligules; neuropodium with 2 anterior and a posterior digitiform lobes. Branchiae arising below dorsal cirus, in the form of branched bunches of filaments, starting from setiger 7-8 and extending up to setiger 20-22. Palps blunt ovoid.

In epitokous males the gills are more numerous and are present on a greater number of feet. Posteriorly the feet become longer and more simple. The setae are very numerous, very long and slender. Further back the feet and bristles become shorter again and the body is reduced to an elongated soft, white pouch, swollen with sperm. Pygidium with a few short papillae.

Synonym (s)
Dendronereides heteropoda Fauvel, 1932
Dendronereides heteropoda Hartman, 1959

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Estuarine, Muddy


• West Bengal, Gangetic Delta (Lat: 7.21) (Long: 93.78) INDIA
• West Bengal, Sundarbans (Lat: 21.5) (Long: 88.17) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Backwaters INDIA
• West Bengal, Calcutta (Lat: 22.53) (Long: 88.42) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai (Lat: 18.98) (Long: 72.83) INDIA
• West Bengal, Teropekhya INDIA (Record: 07/03/1984)
• West Bengal, Raichak INDIA (Record: 07/12/1983)
• West Bengal, Haldia INDIA (Record: 06/03/1984)
• West Bengal, Kakdwip INDIA (Record: 12/07/1980)
• West Bengal, Bakkhali INDIA (Record: 07/03/1985)
• West Bengal, Diamond Harbour INDIA (Record: 11/03/1985)
• West Bengal, Falta INDIA (Record: 25/03/1985)
• West Bengal, Haora, Salkia INDIA (Record: 10/06/1986)
• West Bengal, Barrackpore INDIA (Record: 03/06/1986)
• West Bengal, Gadiwara INDIA (Record: 31/03/1989)
• West Bengal, Kolkata INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA (Record: 03/1966)
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA (Record: 1985)
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA (Record: 1994, 1995)
• Maharashtra, Tarapur INDIA (Record: 03/1966)
• Persian Gulf
• West Bengal, Ghusighata INDIA
• West Bengal, Barantolla INDIA
• West Bengal, Bhushighata INDIA (Record: 18/10/1982)
• West Bengal, Narayanpur INDIA (Record: 09/03/1984)
• Orissa, Subarnarekha estuary INDIA
• West Bengal, South 24 Parganas INDIA
• West Bengal, North 24 Parganas INDIA
• West Bengal, East Medinipur INDIA
• West Bengal, Haora INDIA
• West Bengal, Kolkata INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Paul, S and Nandi, NC Studies on intertidal macrozoobenthos of Hugli river in and around Calcutta in relation to water and soil conditions Occasional paper no 213 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 1-135 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hartman, O (1974) Polychaetous annelids of the Indian Ocean including an account of species collected by members of the International Indian Ocean Expeditions, 1963-1964, and a catalogue and bibliography of the species from India. Part II Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 16(2) 609-644 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Southern, R (1921) Fauna of the Chilka lake (Polychaeta of the Chilka lake and also of fresh and brackish waters in other parts of India) Memoirs of the Indian Museum Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Wehe, T and Fiege, D (2002) Annotated checklist of the polychaete species of the seas surrounding the Arabian Peninsula: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Gulf Fauna of Arabia 19 7-238 Available at -
  • Mandal, AK and Nandi, NC (1989) Fauna of Sundarban mangrove ecosystem, West Bengal, India Fauna of Conservations 3 35431 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jaweir, HJ and Habash, AH (1987) Toxicity of water-soluble hydrocarbons of kerosene to polychaetous annelids from Shutt-Al-Arab Journal of Biological Sciences Research 18(2) 111-122 Available at - ZOOR:ZOOR12400005647
  • Kumar, RS (2002) Biomass, horizontal zonation and vertical stratification of polychaete fauna in the littoral sediment of Cochin estuarine mangrove habitat, south west coast of India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences CSIR, New Delhi 31 100-107 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Kumar, RS (1995) Macrobenthos in the mangrove ecosystem of Cochin backwaters, Kerala (southwest coast of India) Indian Journal of Marine Sciences CSIR, New Delhi 24 56-61 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Misra, A (1995) Polychaetes Estuarine ecosystem series, Part 2: Hugli Matla Estuary ZSI, Calcutta 93-155 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fauvel, P (1953) The fauna of India including Pakistan, Ceylon, Burma and Malaya: Annelida, Polychaeta The Indian press ltd., Allahabad 507 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kumar, RS (2001) Biodiversity and affinity of polychaetous annelids within the mangrove ecosystem of Indo-Pacific region Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 43(1&2) 206-213 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Parulekar, AH (1971) Polychaetes from Maharashtra and Goa Journal of Bombay Natural History Society Bombay Natural History Society 68(3) 726-749 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sarkar, SK; Bhattacharya, A; Giri, S; Bhattacharya, B; Sarkar, D; ChandraNayak, D and Chattopadhaya, AK (2005) Spatiotemporal variation in benthic polychaetes (Annelida) and relationships with environmental variables in a tropical estuary Wetlands Ecology and Management 13 55-67 Available at -
  • Mitra, S (2010) Habitat and population density of Lingula anatina (Brachiopoda) - A living fossil from subarnarekha estuary, orissa Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 7(2) 140 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Mitra, S; Misra, A (2010) Polychaetes of the Wetlands of West Bengal Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 7(2) 141-146 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-10-21

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