Plesiastrea versipora   (Lamarck,  1816) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Faviidae

Image copyrights: Bishop museum

Description
Color: Yellow, cream, green or brown, usually pale-coloured in the tropics and brightly coloured (green or brown) in high latitude areas.

Colonies are flat and are frequently lobed. Corallites are monocentric and plocoid. Daughter corallites are produced by extratentacular budding. Corallites have calices approximately 2.5 mm in diameter. Paliform lobes form a neat circle around small columellae. Polyps are usually extended only at night. Tentacles are short and are of two alternating sizes. This species can often be recognised in situ by its daytime expanded tentacles. Corallites are usually strongly plocoid, and about 3.5 to 4.5 mm diameter. Budding is predominantly extratentacular but with examples of intratentacular budding on many coralla. On cleaned specimens, a clear ring of large pali distinguishes the species.

Broadcast spawners.


Synonym (s)
Astrea versipora Lamarck, 1816
Plesiastrea versipora Scheer and Pillai, 1974
Plesiastrea versipora Veron, Pichon and Best, 1977
Plesiastrea urveilli Edwards & Haime, 1849

Common Name (s)
• Small Knob Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• MADAGASCAR
• Tamil Nadu, Kariyachalli Island (Lat: 8.95) (Long: 78.23) INDIA
• Red Sea
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Karnataka, Netrani Island (Lat: 14.01) (Long: 74.33) INDIA (Record: 08/05/2006) (Depth: -12 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban, Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Gujarat, Dholiogugar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 14) (Long: 94) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8.53) (Long: 92.5) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pamban INDIA (Record: 1968-1969)
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Atoll INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2002) Andaman and Nicobar Islands biodiversity strategy and action plan (Version: 3)
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  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Mazlan, AG; Zaidi, CC; WanLotfi, WM and Othman, BHR (2005) On the current status of coastal marine biodiversity in Malaysia Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India, in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, INDIA 34(1) 76-87 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Cairns, DS; Hoeksema, WB and Derland, JV (1999) List of extant stony corals Atoll Research Bulletin National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, U. S. A 459 13-46 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Faure, G (1977) Distribution of coral communities on the reef slopes in the Mascarene Archipelago, Indian Ocean Marine Research in Indonesia National Institute of Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Science, Jakarta, Indonesia 17 73-97 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Subba Rao, NV and Sastry, DRK (2005) Fauna of Marine National Park, Gulf of Kuchchh (Gujarat) ZSI 79 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Fenner, D; Clark, TH; Turner, JR and Chapman, B (2004) A checklist of the corals of the island state of Rodrigues, Mauritius Journal of Natural History 38 3091-3102 Available at - NCL
  • Advanced Aquarist Available at - http://www.advancedaquarist.com/
  • Veron, JEN (2000) Corals of the world Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia 3 490 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Venkataraman, K; Satyanarayana, CH; Alfred, JRB and Wolstenholme, J (2003) Handbook on hard corals of India ZSI, Kolkata 266 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Edward, JKP; Patterson, J; Venkatesh M; Mathews, G; Chellaram, C and Wilhelmsson D (2004) A field guide to stony corals (Scleractinia) of Tuticorin in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India SDMRI special research publication no. 4 SDMRI, Tuticorin, India 80 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Zacharia, PU; Krishnakumar, PK; Dineshbabu, AP; Vijayakumaran, K; Rohit, P; Thomas, S; Sasikumar, G; Kaladharan, P; Durgekar, RN and Mohamed, KS (2008) Species assemblage in the coral reef ecosystem of Netrani Island off Karnataka along the southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 50(1) 87-97 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, CSG (1969) Stony corals of the seas around India Proceedings of the Symposium on corals and coral reefs Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 191-216 Available at - NIO RC, Kochi
  • Pillai, CSG. (1983) Structure and generic diversity of recent scleractinia of India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India 25(1&2) 78-90 Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
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  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • Bishop museum Available at - http://www.bishopmuseum.org/
  • (1997) Coastal marine environment of Gujarat 178pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, CSG (1983) Coral reefs and their environs Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 36-43 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/995/1/Bulletin_No_34-6.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) The distribution of shallow-water stony corals at Minicoy atoll in the Indian ocean with a check-list of species Atoll Research Bulletin CMFRI 141 1-12 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6047/1/1.pdf
  • Stoddart, DR and Pillai, CSG (1972) Raised reefs of Ramanathapuram, south India Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers Blackwell Publishing 56 111-125 Available at - http://www.jstor.org/stable/621544
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) Composition of the coral fauna of the southeastern coast of India and the Laccadives Symposium of the zoological society of London 28 301-327 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6215/1/601.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG and Jasmine, S (1989) The coral fauna of Lakshadweep Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 179-195 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-04-29

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