Merulina ampliata   (Ellis & Solander,  1786) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Merulinidae

Image copyrights: Eva DiDonato

Description
Color: A variety of pale colours, usually pink or pale brown.

Colonies are small, laminar and foliaceous or sub-arborescent with different growth forms characteristically occurring in the one colony. They are a mixture of foliaceous plates and contorted projections. These contortions resemble a mass of irregular branches in some colonies. Calices on the leafy parts of a corallum are rarely monocentric, but usually run in long meandroid series toward the edge of the leaf. Corallites on the twisted projections are commonly monocentric. Walls are low, rounded and very broad relative to the calice width. Valleys are short, straight and spread fan-wise, then divide. They radiate from the colony centre on flat surfaces but are highly contorted on branches. Flat surfaces often have concentric growth lines. Polyps are usually extended only at night.

Hermaphroditic, sexual, broadcast spawning.


Synonym (s)
Madrepora ampliata Ellis & Solander, 1786
Merulina ampliata Scheer & Pillai, 1974

Common Name (s)
• Crispy Crust Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)
Importance:  Commercial
(Aquarium trade)
Threats:  Natural threats
(Increase susceptibility to coral diseases)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Flores INDONESIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kilakarai, Appa INDIA (Record: 09/2004-06/2005) (Depth: -(2-10) mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andamans INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 14) (Long: 94) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8.53) (Long: 92.5) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Hare Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Manauli Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Atoll INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, New Islet Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79.2) INDIA (Record: 03/2005-05/2005)

Literature Source(s)
  • (2002) Andaman and Nicobar Islands biodiversity strategy and action plan (Version: 3)
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  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Coral reefs species in India Available at - http://envfor.nic.in/icrmn/species/species.html
  • Fautin, DG (2008) Hexacorallians of the World Available at - http://geoportal.kgs.ku.edu/hexacoral/anemone2/index.cfm
  • Mazlan, AG; Zaidi, CC; WanLotfi, WM and Othman, BHR (2005) On the current status of coastal marine biodiversity in Malaysia Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India, in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, INDIA 34(1) 76-87 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Cairns, DS; Hoeksema, WB and Derland, JV (1999) List of extant stony corals Atoll Research Bulletin National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, U. S. A 459 13-46 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Sheppard, C and Obura, D (2005) Corals and reefs of Cosmoledo and Aldabra atolls: Extent Journal of Natural History Taylor and Francis Ltd 39(2) 103-121 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Advanced Aquarist Available at - http://www.advancedaquarist.com/
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Reeflex Available at - http://www.reeflex.net/
  • Sukumaran, S; George, RM and Kasinathan, C (2008) Community structure and spatial patterns of hard coral biodiversity in Kilakarai group of islands in Gulf of Mannar, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 50(1) 79-86 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Pillai, CSG (1969) Stony corals of the seas around India Proceedings of the Symposium on corals and coral reefs Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 191-216 Available at - NIO RC, Kochi
  • Pillai, CSG. (1983) Structure and generic diversity of recent scleractinia of India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India 25(1&2) 78-90 Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • National park service Available at - http://www.nps.gov/
  • Pillai, CSG (1983) Coral reefs and their environs Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 36-43 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/995/1/Bulletin_No_34-6.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) The distribution of shallow-water stony corals at Minicoy atoll in the Indian ocean with a check-list of species Atoll Research Bulletin CMFRI 141 1-12 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6047/1/1.pdf
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) Composition of the coral fauna of the southeastern coast of India and the Laccadives Symposium of the zoological society of London 28 301-327 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6215/1/601.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG and Jasmine, S (1989) The coral fauna of Lakshadweep Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 179-195 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1969) The distribution of corals on a reef at Mandapam (Palk bay), S. India Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 11(1&2) 62-72 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sukumaran, S; George, RM and Kasinathan, C (2007) Biodiversity and community structure of coral reefs around Krusadai Island, Gulf of Mannar, India Indian Journal of Fisheries Indian Council of Agricultural Research 54(3) 275-282 Available at - http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/IJF/article/view/6940/2673

Page last updated on:2013-05-15

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