Hydnophora exesa   (Pallas,  1766) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Merulinidae

Image copyrights: Guido & Philippe Poppe/ www. Poppe-images.com

Description
Color: Cream or dull green.

Colonies are submassive, encrusting or sub-arborescent with much of this variation occurring in the one colony. Hydnophores are 5-8 mm in diameter. The surface is covered with small monticules, small conical projections or pyramids. It has large monticules, 3 to 5 mm tall and either 4 - 5 mm in diameter, or elongated, reaching 10 to 20 mm long. The colony is irregular in shape and form, being part massive but often with a foliaceous skirt. Many colonies also support irregular, nearly ramose projections. Its living tissue is fairly fleshy, with visible tentacles in daytime.

Hermaphroditic, sexual, broadcast spawning.


Synonym (s)
Madrepora exesa Pallas, 1766
Hydnophora exesa Scheer and Pillai, 1974
Hydnophora maldivensis Gardiner, 1904
Hydnophora exesa Veron, Pichon & Wijsman-Best, 1977
Hydnophora exesa Veron, 2000
Hydnophora tenella Quelch, 1886

Common Name (s)
• Spine Coral (English)
• Horn Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)
Importance:  Commercial
(Aquarium trade)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Targeted for aquarium trade. Localized threats to corals includes fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
IUCN Status:  NearThreatened

Biogeography


• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Gujarat, Burel INDIA
• Gujarat, Dona INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Kariyachalli Island (Lat: 8.95) (Long: 78.23) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Koswari Island (Lat: 8.86) (Long: 78.21) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vaan Island (Lat: 8.83) (Long: 78.21) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh INDIA
• Gujarat, Okha INDIA
• Gujarat, Dholiogugar INDIA
• Gujarat, Borai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 14) (Long: 94) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8.53) (Long: 92.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA (Record: 1968-1969)
• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Shingle Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Pongibalu INDIA
• INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island (Lat: 9.25) (Long: 79.2) INDIA (Record: 03/2005-05/2005)

Literature Source(s)
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  • http://dardanus.fc2web.com/ Available at - http://dardanus.fc2web.com/
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Page last updated on:2012-02-10

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