Symphyllia recta   (Dana,  1846) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Mussidae

Description
Color: Usually dull brown, grey or green, sometimes red. Valley floors and the tops of the walls are often distinctly coloured.

Colonies are dome-shaped or hemispherical. Valleys are 12-15 mm in diameter and sinuous. Septa are relatively fine.

Hermaphroditic, sexual, broadcast spawning.


Synonym (s)
Symphyllia recta Dana, 1846
Symphyllia recta Pillai and Scheer, 1974
Symphyllia recta (Dana, 1846)
(Senior synonym)
Symphyllia nobilis (Dana)

Common Name (s)
• Sinuous Cup Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Palk Bay INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam (Lat: 9.4) (Long: 79.5) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Ashmore Reef AUSTRALIA
• MALDIVES
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Manauli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Shingle Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pullivasal Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Hare Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulli Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Atoll INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Pongibalu INDIA
• INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Butler Bay (Lat: 10.67) (Long: 92.58) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Kalapathar (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 92.56) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, New Islet Island INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2002) Andaman and Nicobar Islands biodiversity strategy and action plan (Version: 3)
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Venkatraman, K; Srinivasan, M; Satyanarayana, CH and Prabhakar D (2002) Faunal diversity of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve Conservation area series 15 ZSI 77 pp; VIII pla Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Mazlan, AG; Zaidi, CC; WanLotfi, WM and Othman, BHR (2005) On the current status of coastal marine biodiversity in Malaysia Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India, in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, INDIA 34(1) 76-87 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Faure, G (1977) Distribution of coral communities on the reef slopes in the Mascarene Archipelago, Indian Ocean Marine Research in Indonesia National Institute of Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Science, Jakarta, Indonesia 17 73-97 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Fenner, D; Clark, TH; Turner, JR and Chapman, B (2004) A checklist of the corals of the island state of Rodrigues, Mauritius Journal of Natural History 38 3091-3102 Available at - NCL
  • Veron, JEN (1986) Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Veron, JEN (2000) Corals of the world Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia 3 490 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Jeyabaskaran, R (2009) New records of corals from Lakshadweep Islands Records of Zoological Survey of India ZSI 109 (Part-1) 53-64 Available at - ZSI
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Pillai, CSG (1969) Stony corals of the seas around India Proceedings of the Symposium on corals and coral reefs Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 191-216 Available at - NIO RC, Kochi
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) The distribution of shallow-water stony corals at Minicoy atoll in the Indian ocean with a check-list of species Atoll Research Bulletin CMFRI 141 1-12 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6047/1/1.pdf
  • Stoddart, DR and Pillai, CSG (1972) Raised reefs of Ramanathapuram, south India Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers Blackwell Publishing 56 111-125 Available at - http://www.jstor.org/stable/621544
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) Composition of the coral fauna of the southeastern coast of India and the Laccadives Symposium of the zoological society of London 28 301-327 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6215/1/601.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1969) The distribution of corals on a reef at Mandapam (Palk bay), S. India Journal of the marine biological association of India The marine biological association of India 11(1&2) 62-72 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Raguraman, R; Sreeraj, CR; Immanuel, T and Raghunathan, C (2010) Intensive study on the Scleractinian coral diversity of Pongibalu, south andaman Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 7(1) 29-36 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • http://dardanus.fc2web.com/ Available at - http://dardanus.fc2web.com/
  • Mondal, T; Raghunathan, C and Ramakrishna (2011) New recruitment of diverse scleractinian corals in little Andaman Islands after Tsunami Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences CSIR 40(5) 653-656 Available at - nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/13076/1/IJMS%2040%285%29%20653-656.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-01-25

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