Galaxea astreata   (Lamarck,  1816) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Oculinidae

Image copyrights: Australian Institute of Marine Sciences

Description
Color: Usually pink, grey, green or brown.

Colonies are submassive, columnar or encrusting, with uniform corallites 3-4.5 mm in diameter. Usually eight to 12 septa reach the corallite centre. Polyps are seldom extended during the day (Source: WoRMS).

Hermaphroditic, sexual.


Synonym (s)
Caryophyllia astreata Lamarck, 1816
Galaxea astreata (Lamarck) Chevalier, 1971
Galaxea clavus Dana, 1846

Common Name (s)
• Octopus Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)
Cultured:  Yes
Importance:  Commercial
(aquarium trade)
Threats:  Natural threats
(increased susceptibility to disease)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Plankton
Predator:  Butterflyfish (Chaetodon lunulatus)
IUCN Status:  Vulnerable

Biogeography


• Kerala, Vazhakala (Lat: 10.03) (Long: 76.28) INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA (Record: 2008)
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Harmindar Bay (Lat: 10.53) (Long: 92.53) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2002) Andaman and Nicobar Islands biodiversity strategy and action plan (Version: 3)
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • James, C; O'Farrell, S; Hamylton, S; Ingwersen, C and Walker, R The coral reef resources of Mu Ko Surin national park, Thailand Coral Cay Conservation Available at - www.coralcay.org
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Fenner, D; Clark, TH; Turner, JR and Chapman, B (2004) A checklist of the corals of the island state of Rodrigues, Mauritius Journal of Natural History 38 3091-3102 Available at - NCL
  • Pillai, CSG; Appukuttan, KK and Kaladharan, P (1999) Occurrence of submerged Pleistocene stony corals and marine molluscs at Vazhakala near Cochin and their significance on sea level changes Indian Journal of Marine Sciences CSIR, New Delhi 28 96-98 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Sheppard, C and Obura, D (2005) Corals and reefs of Cosmoledo and Aldabra atolls: Extent Journal of Natural History Taylor and Francis Ltd 39(2) 103-121 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Veron, JEN (1986) Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Venkataraman, K; Satyanarayana, CH; Alfred, JRB and Wolstenholme, J (2003) Handbook on hard corals of India ZSI, Kolkata 266 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Advanced Aquarist Available at - http://www.advancedaquarist.com/
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Pratchett, MS; Wilson, ESK; Berumen, EML and McCormick, MI (2004) Sublethal effects of coral bleaching on an obligate coral feeding butterflyfish Coral Reefs 23 352-356 Available at - http://www.springerlink.com/content/yv4pkvd6htp7mfnl/fulltext.pdf
  • Reeflex Available at - http://www.reeflex.net/
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • AIMS Data Centre Available at - http://data.aims.gov.au/
  • Mondal, T; Raghunathan, C and Ramakrishna (2011) New recruitment of diverse scleractinian corals in little Andaman Islands after Tsunami Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences CSIR 40(5) 653-656 Available at - nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/13076/1/IJMS%2040%285%29%20653-656.pdf
  • Corals of the World online Available at - http://coral.aims.gov.au/

Page last updated on:2013-05-09

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