Pavona explanulata   (Lamarck,  1816) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Agariciidae

Image copyrights: Bishop museum

Description
Colour: Grey, brown, pink, purple, green or yellow, sometimes mottled.

Colonies are encrusting or thin unifacial laminae, sometimes submassive or columnar. Corallites are usually widely spaced, circular, with pillar-like columellae and smooth alternating septo-costae.


Synonym (s)
Agaricia explanulata Lamarck, 1816
Pavona explanulata Pillai & Scheer, 1976
Pavona explanulata (Lamarck, 1816)
(Senior synonym)
Pavona explanulata Veron, 2000

Common Name (s)
• Leaf Coral (English)
• Star Column Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)
Threats:  Natural threats
(Susceptibility to coral diseases)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• MADAGASCAR
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Suheli Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 14) (Long: 94) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8.53) (Long: 92.5) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Pongibalu INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2002) Andaman and Nicobar Islands biodiversity strategy and action plan (Version: 3)
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Coral reefs species in India Available at - http://envfor.nic.in/icrmn/species/species.html
  • James, C; O'Farrell, S; Hamylton, S; Ingwersen, C and Walker, R The coral reef resources of Mu Ko Surin national park, Thailand Coral Cay Conservation Available at - www.coralcay.org
  • Mazlan, AG; Zaidi, CC; WanLotfi, WM and Othman, BHR (2005) On the current status of coastal marine biodiversity in Malaysia Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India, in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, INDIA 34(1) 76-87 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Fenner, D; Clark, TH; Turner, JR and Chapman, B (2004) A checklist of the corals of the island state of Rodrigues, Mauritius Journal of Natural History 38 3091-3102 Available at - NCL
  • Sheppard, C and Obura, D (2005) Corals and reefs of Cosmoledo and Aldabra atolls: Extent Journal of Natural History Taylor and Francis Ltd 39(2) 103-121 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Venkataraman, K; Satyanarayana, CH; Alfred, JRB and Wolstenholme, J (2003) Handbook on hard corals of India ZSI, Kolkata 266 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Qualitymarinelife Available at - http://www.qualitymarinelife.com/
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • About.com: Saltwater Aquariums Available at - http://saltaquarium.about.com/
  • Jeyabaskaran, R (2009) New records of corals from Lakshadweep Islands Records of Zoological Survey of India ZSI 109 (Part-1) 53-64 Available at - ZSI
  • Pillai, CSG. (1983) Structure and generic diversity of recent scleractinia of India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India 25(1&2) 78-90 Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • Bishop museum Available at - http://www.bishopmuseum.org/
  • Pillai, CSG (1983) Coral reefs and their environs Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 36-43 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/995/1/Bulletin_No_34-6.pdf
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • Raguraman, R; Sreeraj, CR; Immanuel, T and Raghunathan, C (2010) Intensive study on the Scleractinian coral diversity of Pongibalu, south andaman Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 7(1) 29-36 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2013-05-30

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