Psammocora contigua   (Esper,  1797) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Siderastreidae

Image copyrights: Steve Coles

Description
Color: Pale to dark grey-Brown.

Colonies are a mixture of flattened branches or columns or irregular nodules. They are sometimes found free-living. Corallites are very fine and shallow, giving colonies a smooth surface (source: WoRMS).

Gonochoric, sexual, broadcast spawning.


Synonym (s)
Madrepora contigua Esper, 1797
Psammocora contigua (Esper, 1846)
Psammocora gonagra Kluzinger, 1879
Psammocora planipora Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851

Common Name (s)
• Stony Coral (English)
• Branched sandpaper coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Flores INDONESIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 73.03) INDIA
• Palk Bay (Lat: 9.5) (Long: 79.25) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Reef Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8.53) (Long: 92.5) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 14) (Long: 94) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Krusadai Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Shingle Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pullivasal Island INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulli Island INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Atoll INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kilttan INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2002) Andaman and Nicobar Islands biodiversity strategy and action plan (Version: 3)
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Coral reefs species in India Available at - http://envfor.nic.in/icrmn/species/species.html
  • Mazlan, AG; Zaidi, CC; WanLotfi, WM and Othman, BHR (2005) On the current status of coastal marine biodiversity in Malaysia Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India, in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, INDIA 34(1) 76-87 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Saad, MAH (1984) Proceedings of the Symposium on Coral Reef environment of the Red Sea King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia 1-681 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Veron, JEN (1986) Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Venkataraman, K; Satyanarayana, CH; Alfred, JRB and Wolstenholme, J (2003) Handbook on hard corals of India ZSI, Kolkata 266 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Veron, JEN (2000) Corals of the world Australian Institute of Marine Science, Australia 2 429 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Advanced Aquarist Available at - http://www.advancedaquarist.com/
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Reeflex Available at - http://www.reeflex.net/
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Arkive: Images of life on earth Available at - http://www.arkive.org/
  • James, PSBR; Gopinadha, CS; Thomas, PA; James, DB and Koya, S (1989) Environmental damage and consequences Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 43 212-227 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/2655/1/Article_22.pdf
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Venkataraman, K (2005) Coral reef ecosystem and the diversity of reef building corals in India Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 10-24 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Rao, GC; Rao, DV and Devi, K (1994) A faunal exploration of the North Reef Island sanctuary, North Andaman Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 10(1&2) 68-81 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, CSG (1983) Coral reefs and their environs Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 36-43 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/995/1/Bulletin_No_34-6.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) The distribution of shallow-water stony corals at Minicoy atoll in the Indian ocean with a check-list of species Atoll Research Bulletin CMFRI 141 1-12 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6047/1/1.pdf
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) Composition of the coral fauna of the southeastern coast of India and the Laccadives Symposium of the zoological society of London 28 301-327 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6215/1/601.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG and Jasmine, S (1989) The coral fauna of Lakshadweep Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 179-195 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf

Page last updated on:2012-11-20

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