Acropora robusta   (Dana,  1846) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Acroporidae

Image copyrights: Australian Institute of Marine Sciences

Description
Color: Bright green with deep-pink branch tips or pinky-brown, yellow -brown or cream.

Low, branching colonies, with branches sprawling in all directions, some vertically, others horizontally and then turning upwards. Branches in the centre of the colony are generally much thicker, and may simply be lumps rising from the extensive area of attachment. Branches may exceed 4 cm thick, forming some of the largest and thickest branches of the Acropora (excluding "stalks" of table Acropora). Corallites are of two main kinds: immersed or cylindrical, the latter being most common near branch tips and the former predominating on older, thicker sections. Branches have a rasp like texture. Colonies may have bases which apparently encrust the substrate for over 2 m in diameter (Source: WoRMS).

Hermaphroditic, broadcast spawning.



Synonym (s)
Madrepora robusta Dana, 1846
Acropora decipiens (Brook, 1893)
Acropora smithi (Brook, 1893)
(Junior synonym)
Madrepora smithi Brook, 1893
(Basionym of Acropora smithi)
Acropora pinguis Wells
Acropora conigera (Dana, 1846)

Common Name (s)
• Stony Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats
(Members of this genus have a low resistance and low tolerance to bleaching and disease, and are slow to recover)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Plankton
Predator:  Butterfly fishes (Chaetodon trifascialis and Chaetodon trifasciatus)
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Red Sea
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Pongibalu INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands,Dugong Creek (Lat: 10.81) (Long: 93.06) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands,Ram Krishna Pur Beach (Lat: 10.71) (Long: 92.6) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Kalapathar (Lat: 10.66) (Long: 92.56) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Harmindar Bay (Lat: 10.75) (Long: 92.5) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Light House (Lat: 10.52) (Long: 92.50) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2002) Andaman and Nicobar Islands biodiversity strategy and action plan (Version: 3)
  • Tikadar, BK; Daniel, A and Subbarao, NV (1986) Sea shore animals of Andaman and Nicobar Islands The Director, ZSI, Kolkatta 188 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Ocean Biogeographic Information System Available at - http://www.iobis.org/
  • James, C; O'Farrell, S; Hamylton, S; Ingwersen, C and Walker, R The coral reef resources of Mu Ko Surin national park, Thailand Coral Cay Conservation Available at - www.coralcay.org
  • Mazlan, AG; Zaidi, CC; WanLotfi, WM and Othman, BHR (2005) On the current status of coastal marine biodiversity in Malaysia Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India, in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, INDIA 34(1) 76-87 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Cairns, DS; Hoeksema, WB and Derland, JV (1999) List of extant stony corals Atoll Research Bulletin National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, U. S. A 459 13-46 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Sheppard, C and Obura, D (2005) Corals and reefs of Cosmoledo and Aldabra atolls: Extent Journal of Natural History Taylor and Francis Ltd 39(2) 103-121 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Venkataraman, K; Satyanarayana, CH; Alfred, JRB and Wolstenholme, J (2003) Handbook on hard corals of India ZSI, Kolkata 266 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Advanced Aquarist Available at - http://www.advancedaquarist.com/
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Reefkeeping- An online magazine for the marine aquarist Available at - http://reefkeeping.com/index.htm
  • Australian Institute of Marine Science Available at - http://www.aims.gov.au/
  • Graham, NAJ (2007) Ecological versatility and the decline of coral feeding fishes following climate driven coral mortality Marine Biology Springer Berlin / Heidelberg 153(2) 119-127 Available at - http://www.springerlink.com/content/9603851204hwv725/fulltext.pdf
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • Pillai, CSG and Jasmine, S (1989) The coral fauna of Lakshadweep Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 179-195 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • Raguraman, R; Sreeraj, CR; Immanuel, T and Raghunathan, C (2010) Intensive study on the Scleractinian coral diversity of Pongibalu, south andaman Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 7(1) 29-36 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Mondal, T; Raghunathan, C and Ramakrishna (2011) New recruitment of diverse scleractinian corals in little Andaman Islands after Tsunami Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences CSIR 40(5) 653-656 Available at - nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/13076/1/IJMS%2040%285%29%20653-656.pdf

Page last updated on:2013-04-22

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