Acropora granulosa   (Milne Edwards & Haime,  1860) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Acroporidae

Image :Australian Institute of Marine Sciences

Description
Color: The large axial corallites are cream coloured, with the rest of the colony being pale or mid brown.

Colonies are usually less than 30 cm across and high, with bushy form, and only a limited tendency towards developing into plates. Where they do form plates, the branches are often flattened: there is a flat, granular underside with no branches arising from the surface, and a rounded upper side which supports the branchlets. Branchlets are very distinctive, due to their very large and smoothly rounded, often bulbous, axial corallites. Each axial corallite can exceed 1.5 cm long and 6 mm wide, and may comprise over half of its entire branchlet. Generally, radial corallites do not appear until well down the branchlets, though on the more bulbous axials, several completely immersed radials develop. Although it is widespread its fairly small colonies are well dispersed, and it does not form dense aggregations.


Synonym (s)
Acropora granulosa Wallace, 1978
Madrepora granulosa Edwards & Haime, 1860

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)
Threats:  Natural threats
(Members of this genus have a low resistance and low tolerance to bleaching and disease, and are slow to recover)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Predator:  Butterflyfishes (Chaetodon trifascialis and Chaetodon trifasciatus)
IUCN Status:  NearThreatened

Biogeography


• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Flores INDONESIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2002) Andaman and Nicobar Islands biodiversity strategy and action plan (Version: 3)
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Checklist of fish and invertebrates listed in the CITES appendices and in EC regulation no. 338/97 Available at - http://www.ukcites.gov.uk/pdf_files/FishInvertebrates6.pdf
  • Coral reefs species in India Available at - http://envfor.nic.in/icrmn/species/species.html
  • Cairns, DS; Hoeksema, WB and Derland, JV (1999) List of extant stony corals Atoll Research Bulletin National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, U. S. A 459 13-46 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Veron, JEN (1986) Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Venkataraman, K; Satyanarayana, CH; Alfred, JRB and Wolstenholme, J (2003) Handbook on hard corals of India ZSI, Kolkata 266 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Aquatic connection Available at - http://www.aquacon.com/
  • Graham, NAJ (2007) Ecological versatility and the decline of coral feeding fishes following climate driven coral mortality Marine Biology Springer Berlin / Heidelberg 153(2) 119-127 Available at - http://www.springerlink.com/content/9603851204hwv725/fulltext.pdf
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Pillai, CSG. (1983) Structure and generic diversity of recent scleractinia of India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India 25(1&2) 78-90 Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Pillai, CSG and Jasmine, S (1989) The coral fauna of Lakshadweep Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 179-195 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-04-29

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