Acropora florida   (Dana,  1846) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Acroporidae

Image copyrights: Australian Institue of Marine Sciences

Description
Color: usually pinkish-brown, occasionally green or bright green; Colours of the living coral are usually greenish.

Branches are thick and most colonies contain mixtures of upright branches and horizontal branches, sometimes on a large, encrusting and sprawling base. The branches are covered with small incipient branchlets which have the appearance of small knobs. Corallites are of even size and distribution. In
between the branchlets the radial corallites are sub immersed to immersed. Radial corallites are round tubular with flaring lips. Primary septa are clearly visible. The coenosteum is porous with fine spines.

Hermaphroditic, broadcast spawning.



Synonym (s)
Madrepora florida Dana, 1846
Acropora florida Wallace, 1978
Acropora gravida (Dana)

Common Name (s)
• Stony Coral (English)
• Branch Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats
(Members of this genus have a low resistance and low tolerance to bleaching and disease, and are slow to recover)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Plankton
Predator:  Butterflyfishes (Chaetodon trifascialis and Chaetodon trifasciatus)

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin Coast INDIA (Record: 08/12/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Pongibalu INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • (2002) Andaman and Nicobar Islands biodiversity strategy and action plan (Version: 3)
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at - http://www.unep-wcmc.org/
  • Mazlan, AG; Zaidi, CC; WanLotfi, WM and Othman, BHR (2005) On the current status of coastal marine biodiversity in Malaysia Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources, CSIR, New Delhi, India, in association with Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, INDIA 34(1) 76-87 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Cairns, DS; Hoeksema, WB and Derland, JV (1999) List of extant stony corals Atoll Research Bulletin National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, U. S. A 459 13-46 Available at - NIO, RC, Kochi
  • Allen, GR (2005) Reef fishes of northwestern Madagascar RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 31 39-48
  • Sheppard, C and Obura, D (2005) Corals and reefs of Cosmoledo and Aldabra atolls: Extent Journal of Natural History Taylor and Francis Ltd 39(2) 103-121 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Veron, JEN (1986) Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Venkataraman, K; Satyanarayana, CH; Alfred, JRB and Wolstenholme, J (2003) Handbook on hard corals of India ZSI, Kolkata 266 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Advanced Aquarist Available at - http://www.advancedaquarist.com/
  • Sealifebase Available at - http://www.sealifebase.org/
  • Wafar, MVM and Wafar, S (2001) 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness National Institute of Oceanography, Goa and Administration of the U.T. of Lakshadweep 81 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Carpenter, KE; Abrar, M; Aeby, G; Aronson, RB; Banks, S et al. (2008) One third of reef building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 321 125-126 Available at - http://sci.odu.edu/gmsa/about/Carpenter_corals_supplimental.pdf
  • Australian Institute of Marine Science Available at - http://www.aims.gov.au/
  • Reeflex Available at - http://www.reeflex.net/
  • Graham, NAJ (2007) Ecological versatility and the decline of coral feeding fishes following climate driven coral mortality Marine Biology Springer Berlin / Heidelberg 153(2) 119-127 Available at - http://www.springerlink.com/content/9603851204hwv725/fulltext.pdf
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  • Raghuram, KP and Venkataraman, K (2005) Staghorn corals of Gulf of Mannar Proceedings of the National Seminar on Reef Ecosystem Remediation SDMRI Special Research Publication No.9 25-35 Available at - http://www.sdmri.org/reports/proceedings%202005%20-%20sdmri.pdf
  • Raguraman, R; Sreeraj, CR; Immanuel, T and Raghunathan, C (2010) Intensive study on the Scleractinian coral diversity of Pongibalu, south andaman Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 7(1) 29-36 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2013-04-25

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