Pocillopora verrucosa   (Ellis & Solander,  1786) (Hard Coral)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order:Scleractinia
Family:Pocilloporidae

Image copyrights: Francis Abbott

Description
Color: Usually cream, pink or blue

It has broader, club shaped or more flattened branches. It has true verrucae which are evenly sized and spaced. Colonies are composed of uniform upright branches clearly distinct from the verrucae, but the latter are irregular in size. They have permanently coloured red-brown stalks.Colonies usually form hemispheres and grow in isolation. The stout branches (1-2 cm thick) radiate from a central holdfast and tend to be clubbed at their tips. Large verrucae up to 6 mm high, corallites 1 mm across.

Hermaphroditic, sexual, broadcast spawning.


Synonym (s)
Pocillopora porosa Verrill, 1870
Pocillopora verrucosa Ellis and Solander, 1786
Pocillopora meandrina var. nobilis Verrill, 1864
Pocillopora danae Verrill, 1864
Pocillopora hemprichi Ehrenberg, 1834

Common Name (s)
• Cauliflower Coral (English)
• Rasp Coral (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Threats:  Natural threats, Anthropogenic
(Protected under Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972)
Importance:  Commercial
(Aquarium trade)
Threats:  Natural threats
(Predation risk and susceptibility to coral diseases)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities)

Ecology
Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Predator:  Sea star (Acanthaster planci)
IUCN Status:  Least Concern

Biogeography


• Kerala, Vazhakala (Lat: 10.03) (Long: 76.28) INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Palk Bay INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Ashmore Reef AUSTRALIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Karnataka, Netrani Island (Lat: 14.01) (Long: 74.33) INDIA (Record: 08/05/2006) (Depth: -12 mts)
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA
• Kerala, Enayam INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, North Reef Island INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 14) (Long: 94) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 8.53) (Long: 92.5) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 73) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Atoll INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Suheli INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kalpeni INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bangaram INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair (Lat: 11.68) (Long: 92.76) INDIA (Record: 1964-1966)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Pongibalu INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Checklist of fish and invertebrates listed in the CITES appendices and in EC regulation no. 338/97 Available at - http://www.ukcites.gov.uk/pdf_files/FishInvertebrates6.pdf
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  • Reeflex Available at - http://www.reeflex.net/
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  • Stender, GK and Stender, YO Marinelifephotography.com Available at - http://www.marinelifephotography.com/
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at - http://www.iucnredlist.org/
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  • Indian Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
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  • Jasmine, S; George, RM; Manisseri, MK and Kingsly, J (2009) Hard coral diversity along southwest coast of India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India 51(2) 189-193 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rao, GC; Rao, DV and Devi, K (1994) A faunal exploration of the North Reef Island sanctuary, North Andaman Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 10(1&2) 68-81 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, CSG (1983) Coral reefs and their environs Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 34 36-43 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/995/1/Bulletin_No_34-6.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) The distribution of shallow-water stony corals at Minicoy atoll in the Indian ocean with a check-list of species Atoll Research Bulletin CMFRI 141 1-12 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6047/1/1.pdf
  • James, PSBR ; Thomas, PA ; Pillai, CSG and Achari Kumaraswamy, GP (1969) ´╗┐Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 7 1-66 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/567/1/Bulletin_7.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1971) Composition of the coral fauna of the southeastern coast of India and the Laccadives Symposium of the zoological society of London 28 301-327 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/6215/1/601.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG and Jasmine, S (1989) The coral fauna of Lakshadweep Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 179-195 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8213/1/Bulletin_No_43.pdf
  • Pillai, CSG (1967) Studies on Indian corals 5. Preliminary report on new records of Hermatypic corals of the suborder Astrocoeniinan Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 9 (2) 412-422 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/1528/1/Pillai_412-422.pdf
  • Rao, GC (1991) Distribution of plants and animals on the rocky sea shores of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 7(2) 30-42 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Raguraman, R; Sreeraj, CR; Immanuel, T and Raghunathan, C (2010) Intensive study on the Scleractinian coral diversity of Pongibalu, south andaman Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 7(1) 29-36 Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2011-10-18

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