Parupeneus pleurostigma   (Bennett,  1831) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Trevor, M.

Size: 20-33 cm.

Max. weight reported: 906 gm.

Color: In alcohol grayish above lighter below, a round black spot in lateral line below inter space between the two dorsals, behind it, for the major part somewhat above lateral line, an oblong yellow blotch, fins yellowish, the second dorsal with traces of longitudinal bands, caudal dusky (Weber and Beaufort, 1931).
Body pinkish to yellowish gray, the scale edges narrowly dark, with a black spot about 3-4 scales in width on lateral line below posterior part of first dorsal fin, followed by a large pale pink to white spot, a blue spot often present on each scale above lateral line, always present posteriorly, pale blue spots, one per scale, ventrally on body, but often not visible. Short blue lines radiating from eye except ventrally, barbels pale pink to white, basal third of second dorsal fin with a broad black or blackish band or a large black spot, sometimes extending onto adjacent back, the outer part of fin with narrow blue and yellow bands. Anal fin is with faint pale blue and yellow bands, remaining fins varying from yellowish gray to light red.

Oblong, compressed, height 3.5 to 3.6 in length, head 3 to 3.3, much longer than hight, its rostro-dorsal profile evenly but not strongly arched with a slight concavity before eyes. Eye small, more or less than 5 times in head, smaller than convex inter orbital space, situated high up, in young in middle of head, later for its major part in posterior part of head. Mouth rather small, nearly horizontal, mandibula included, maxilla slightly rounded posteriorly, distant from vertical through eye by 3/4 eye-diameter. Snout somewhat rounded, twice or less longer than eye. Barbels surpassing posterior angle of praeoperculum or nearly so. Operculum with a small, flat spine. Gillrakers 17 and 7 small ones on lower branch of first branchial arch. Scales large, weakly ctenoid, reaching on head to nostrils, praeorbital naked, sensory tube on lateral line branched. Spinous dorsal much higher than soft dorsal, first spine minute, second flexible, somewhat shorter than third and fourth, which are sub-equal and go 1.3 to 1.5 in head, second dorsal somewhat lower than anal, about 2.5 in head, both fins are slightly emarginate, their last ray nearly not produced, distance between first and second dorsal shorter than half length of base of first. Pectorals and ventrals sub equal, about 1.3 in head, caudal somewhat shorter than head. Least height of caudal penduncle twice shorter than its length. Dorsal spines (total): 8 - 8, Dorsal soft rays (total): 9 - 9, Anal spines: 1, Anal soft rays: 7, Vertebrae: 24.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Upeneus pleurostigma Bennett, 1831
Parupeneus brandesii (Bleeker, 1851)
(Junior synonym)
Pseudupeneus brandesii (Bleeker, 1851)
(Junior synonym)
Pseudupeneus pleurostigma (Bennett, 1831)
(Senior synonym)
Upeneus brandesii Bleeker, 1851
(Junior synonym)
Upeneus pleurostigma Bennett, 1831
(Senior synonym)
Upeneus pleurostigma Bennett, 1831
Upeneus brandesii Gunther, 1859
Parupeneus brandesi Bleeker, 1865
Mullus pleurostigma Playfair, 1866
Upeneus pleurostigma Gunther, 1875
Parupeneus pleurostigma Bleeker, 1878
Upeneus pleurostigma Sauvage, 1891
Parupeneus pleurostigma Steindachner, 1900
Upeneus pleurostigma Waite, 1901
Pseudupeneus pleurostigma Jenkins, 1904
Pseudupeneus pleurostigma Jordan and Evermann, 1905
Upeneus pleurostigma Snyder, 1912
Parupeneus pleurostigma Barnard, 1927
Upeneus pleurostigma Herre and Montalban, 1928
Upeneus pleurostigma Fowler, 1925
Upeneus pleurostigma Fowler, 1928
Parupeneus pleurostigma Weber and de Beaufort, 1931
Pseudupeneus brandesii Smith and Smith, 1963
Pseudupeneus pleurostigma Smith, 1949
Parupenaeus pleurostigma (Bennett, 1831)
Parupeneus pelurostigma (Bennett, 1831)

Common Name (s)
• Sidespot Goatfish (English)
• Manakkam (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, gamefish, aquarium, ornamental fish)

Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Feeds on benthic animals like crabs, polychaetes and other worms during the day, also shrimps, heart urchins, gastropods, pelecypods, foraminiferans, brittle stars, and fishes.


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Island (Lat: 8.28) (Long: 73.03) INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 11) (Long: 72.5) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Atoll (Lat: 10.55) (Long: 72.63) INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Lakshadweep, Bitra INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Lakshadweep Islands INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Heemstra, E; Heemstra, P; Smale, M; Hoopers, T and Pelicier, D (2004) Preliminary checklist of coastal fishes from the Mauritian island of Rodrigues Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis 38(23-24) 3315 - 3350 Available at - index/
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Durville, P; Chabanet, P and Quod, JP (2003) Visual Census of the Reef Fishes in the Natural Reserve of the Glorieuses Islands (Western Indian Ocean) Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. WIOMSA 2 95-104
  • Allen, GR and Mohammed, A (2003) Coral Reef Fishes of Indonesia Zoological Studies 42(1) 26299 Available at - Digital Information Resource Center, Pune.
  • Garpe, KC and Ohman, MC (2003) Coral and fish distribution patterns in Mafia Island marine park Tanzania fish habitat interactions Hydrobiologia Kluwer Academic Publishers 498 191-211 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2007) Coral reef fish abundance and diversity of seagrass beds in Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Indian Journal of Fisheries Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin 54 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2005) Community organization of coral reef fishes in the rubble sub-habitat of Kavaratti Atoll, Lakshadweep, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 47(1) 77-82 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2003) Habitat distribution and species diversity of coral reef fishes in the reefslope of the Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(1) 88-98 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 3 Available at -
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1965) New records of fishes from the seas around India - Part III Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India Marine Biological Association of India 7(2) 381-400 Available at -
  • Jones, S. (1969) Catalogue of fishes from the Laccadive Archipelago in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 8 1-35 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (2002) Marine ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep CMFRI Special Publication CMFRI 72 1-134 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-05-11

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