Parupeneus bifasciatus   (Lacepede,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Richard Ling

Size: 25 cm.

Color: In alcohol specimens brownish with three blackish incomplete cross bands, one below each dorsal fin, the third on posterior half of caudal peduncle, a dark blotch behind eye. Second dorsal and anal faintly banded longitudinally, the other fins yellowish.

Oblong, compressed, height below origin of first dorsal 3 to 3.2 in length, rostro-occipital profile strongly ascending till eye with a concavity before it, thence elevated and arched till first dorsal and continued in dorsal profile which is much more convex than the some what straight ventral profile. Head obtuse, rather deep, about 3.20 in length, as long as high. Eye 4.7 to 5 in large specimens, situated high up, more than its own length distant from vertical through hind border of operculum and more than twice its diameter distant from vertical through end of snout, which goes 1.7 to 1.9 in head and is bluntly rounded. Mouth small, nearly horizontal, the mandible included. Maxillary nearly truncate posteriorly, its terminal width nearly equal to eye, not reaching vertical through front border of eye and distant from it less than half length of eye. Operculum with a conspicuous spine. Barbels extending to vertical through hind margin of operculum, not reaching second row of scales before ventrals. Gillrakers 25 on lower part of first branchial arch, the three or four lowest reduced. First dorsal elevated, the first spine minute, the second ridged and pungent, somewhat shorter than third and fourth, which are subequal, reaching second dorsal when depressed and go about 1.4 to 1.5 in head. The inter spaces between first and second dorsal is covered by only two scales, and is about equal to 1/4 of the length of the first dorsal. Second dorsal and anal truncate, the last ray not produced, not longer than preceding rays, second dorsal about thrice in length of head, somewhat lower than anal. Pectorals more or less than 1.3 in head, they are conspicuously shorter than rather long ventrals which extend to vent. Caudal nearly long ventrals which extend to vent. Caudal nearly equaling head, least height of caudal peduncle, more than half its length.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportion.

Synonym (s)
Mullus bifasciatus Lacepede, 1801
Mullus multifasciatus Quoy and Gaimard, 1824
Upeneus bifasciatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829
Upeneus trifasciatus Gunther, 1859
Parupeneus bifasciatus Bleeker, 1875
Upeneus bifasciatus Gunther, 1875
Upeneus semifasciatus Macleay, 1883
Upeneus bifasciatus Sauvage, 1891
Pseudupeneus bifasciatus Bryan and Herre, 1903
Pseudupeneus bifasciatus Jordan and Evermann, 1905
Pseudupeneus bifasciatus Jordan and Seale, 1906
Parupeneus trifasciatus M. Weber, 1913
Upeneus bifasciatus Herre and Montalban, 1928
Upeneus bifasciatus Fowler, 1928
Pseudupeneus bifasciatus Smith and Smith, 1963

Common Name (s)
• Doublebar Goatfish (English)
• Galikaluoh
• Kalmanakkam
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Ornamental fish, bait fish)

Habitat:  Reef Associated


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy Atoll (Lat: 8) (Long: 71) INDIA
• Lakshadweep (Lat: 11) (Long: 72.5) INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Atoll INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti Atoll (Lat: 10.55) (Long: 72.63) INDIA (Record: 01/1991-06/1992)
• Lakshadweep, Agatti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Chettalatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Kavaratti INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Minicoy INDIA
• Lakshadweep, Suheli INDIA
• Lakshadweep INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Lakshadweep, Kadamatt INDIA (Record: 05/01/1987-06/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep, Amini INDIA (Record: 05/01/1987-06/02/1987)
• Lakshadweep Islands INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Kemp, JM (1998) Zoogeography of the coral reef fishes of the Socotra Archipelago Journal of Biogeography 25 919-933
  • Pillai, CSG; Gopakumar, G and Mohan, M (1991) Ichthyofauna of the intertidal reef flats of Minicoy atoll, Lakshadweep An analysis of its structure, relative abundance and food Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The marine Biological Association of India 34 74-83 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Mehdi, A; Yves, L; Michel, P and Salvat, B (1998) Factors influencing spatial distribution of fish communities an a fringing reef at Mauritius, S.W. Indian Ocean Environmental Biology of Fishes Kluwer Academic Publishers 53 169-182 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Garpe, KC and Ohman, MC (2003) Coral and fish distribution patterns in Mafia Island marine park Tanzania fish habitat interactions Hydrobiologia Kluwer Academic Publishers 498 191-211 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2007) Coral reef fish abundance and diversity of seagrass beds in Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Indian Journal of Fisheries Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin 54 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2005) Community organization of coral reef fishes in the rubble sub-habitat of Kavaratti Atoll, Lakshadweep, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin, India 47(1) 77-82 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Wikimedia Commons Available at -
  • Anand, PEV and Pillai, NGK (2003) Habitat distribution and species diversity of coral reef fishes in the reefslope of the Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep, India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 45(1) 88-98 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1931) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 6 448 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Jones, S and Kumaran, M (1980) Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago The Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service, Trivandrum, Kerala 760 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (1996) Marine ornamental fishes of India Proceedings of the Seminar on Fisheries - A Multibillion Dollar Industry, Madras CMFRI 23-34 Available at -
  • Kumaran, M; Murty, VS and Lalmohan, RS (1989) Resources of ornamental fishes Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep: An indicative survey with suggestions for development Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI 43 46-64 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (2002) Marine ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep CMFRI Special Publication CMFRI 72 1-134 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (2001) Ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep Bulletins of the Geological Survey of India 56 103-111 Available at -
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Silas, EG and Pillai, PP (1982) Bait fishes Resources of tunas and related species and their fisheries in the Indian Ocean, CMFRI Bulletin, 32 CMFRI 32 136-140 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-12-01

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