Nemipterus tolu [Status Unaccepted]   (Valenciennes,  1830) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Size: 21.5 cm.

Color: In preserved specimens reddish brown above, slivery below. Fins light yellowish.

Dorsal profile evenly convex from snout to dorsal. Height of head, measured in vertical through hind border of preoperculum, less than half length of operculum shorter than length of head. Height 3.1-3.6, 3.8-4.8 in length with caudal. Head 3.4-3.8, 4.3-4.8 in length with caudal. Eye 2.9-3, equal to or somewhat more or less than snout. Inter orbital space slightly concave, 1.3-1.4 in eye. Mouth somewhat oblique, maxillary reaching to below anterior border of eye or slightly farther. Jaws equal. A few rows of conical teeth in the anterior part of the upper jaw, tapering into a single row of about 18 teeth laterally. Six moderate curved canines in front of the upper jaw. Two irregular rows of pointed teeth in the lower jaw, without canines anteriorly, but some of the lateral teeth are more or less caninoid.

Depth of suborbital one half or two thirds of vertical diameter of eye. Posterior angle of suborbital very obtuse and rounded, its hind border forming a more or less straight line, which, when produced, reaches the dorsal profile about at origin of dorsal. Preoperculum with three transverse rows of scales, the depth of the naked limb twice or nearly twice in that of the scaly part. Hind border of preoperculum smooth or slightly crenulate, with some minute teeth at edge. Scales beginning on head above middle or posterior half of eye with an ill-defined supra-temporal band of about 4 scales.

Dorsal spines flexible, not pungent, the fourth to sixth spines longest, equal to snout and eye together or to snout and half eye in small specimens. The membrane between the spines deeply emarginate. Soft dorsal rounded, conspicuously lower than spinous part. Anal spines weak, the first half length of second, the third longest, equal to eye. Soft anal scarcely deeper than spinous part, rounded below, pointed behind. Pectorals and ventrals, with the first ray produced, sub-equal, as long as head without snout or somewhat longer. Caudal deeply forked. Least height of caudal peduncle 1.7-1.8 in its length.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Dentex tolu Valenciennes, 1830
Dentex tolu Bleeker, 1850
Dentex mulloides Bleeker, 1852
Synagris mulloides Gunther, 1859
Dentex obtusus Bleeker, 1860
Dentex tolu Bleeker, 1873
Synagris tolu Day, 1888
Dentex tolu Bleeker, 1877
Synagris tolu Sauvage, 1891
Dentex tolu Fowler, 1904
Nemipterus tolu Jordan and Seale, 1907
Synagris tolu M. Weber, 1913
Nemipterus mulloides Fowler and Bean, 1922
Synagris tolu Fowler, 1933

Common Name (s)
• Notched Threadfin Bream (English)
• Cundil (Tamil)
• Lomia (Tamil)
• Kadakela (Marathi)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial

Habitat:  Benthic, Coastal


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA (Record: 1984)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Little Andaman INDIA
• Madras Coast INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam Coast INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Brothers, EB and Mathews, CP (1987) Application of otolith microstructural studies to age determination of some commercially valuable fish of the Arabian Gulf Kuwait Bulletin of Marine Science 9 127-157 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Euzen, O (1987) Food habits and diet composition of some fish of Kuwait Kuwait Bulletin of Marine Science 9 65-85 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kuronuma, K and Abe, Y (1986) Fishes of the Arabian Gulf Fishes of the Arabian Gulf 1-356 Available at - ZOOR12500001320
  • Amin, OM; Nahhas, FM; AlYamani, F and AbuHakima R (1984) On three acanthocephalan species from some Arabian Gulf fishes off the coast of Kuwait Journal of Parasitology 70(1) 168-170 Available at - Zoological records
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1936) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 7 607 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (1993) Further new records of fishes from Bay Islands Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 9(1&2) 50-57 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-16

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