Terapon theraps   Cuvier,  1829 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Mya Than Tun

Size: Maximum 30 cm; common to 20 cm.

Color: Dusky above and silvery white below; four dark brown horizontal stripes on body; juveniles also have 6 or 7 vertical bars. Spinous part of dorsal fin with a black blotch on fin membrane between 3rd and 7th spines; soft part of dorsal fin with a dark band along upper portions of anterior rays and a horizontal band on posterior rays; soft part of anal fin with a horizontal black band; each caudal lobe with 1 transverse stripe, upper lobe with black tip.

A moderate-sized species. Body oblong, compressed. Jaws equal, gape slightly oblique; rear of upper jaw reaching to vertical through anterior margin of eye in juveniles, falling short with age; teeth conical, in villiform bands, the outer row much enlarged; vomer and palatines (on roof of mouth) toothless; preopercle serrate, the serrations largest at angle, particularly in adults; lower opercular spine very long and strong, extending distinctly beyond edge of opercular bone; post-temporal bone expanded, exposed and serrate posteriorly; gillrakers on first gill arch: 6 to 8 on upper limb and 14 to 17 on lower limb. Dorsal fin with 11 or 12 spines and 9 to 11 soft rays, spinous part of fin strongly arched and deeply notched; the 3rd to 6th dorsal spines longest, and the penultimate spine about one-half the length of the ultimate; margin of soft portion of dorsal fin emarginate; anal fin with 3 spines and 7 to 9 soft rays, the 3rd anal spine longest but shorter than longest anal ray; margin of soft part of anal fin angular, with a straight border; caudal fin emarginate with rounded lobes. Pored lateral line scales 46 to 56; 6 to 8 rows of scales above lateral line and 14 to 16 rows below it.

Breeds in later summer to rainy season.

Synonym (s)
Eutherapon theraps (Cuvier, 1829)
Terapon therops Day, 1875
Terapon therops Talwar and Jhingran, 1991
Therapon theraps Cuvier, 1829
Eutherapon theraps (Munro, 1955)
Eutherapon theraps (Cuvier, 1829)
(Senior synonym)
Terapon theraps Cuvier, 1829
(Senior synonym)
Therapon nigripinnis Macleay, 1881
(Junior synonym)
Therapon rubricatus Richardson, 1842
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Straight Lined Thornfish (English)
• Largescaled Therapon (English)
• Large Scaled Grunter Perch (English)
• Larged Scale Terapon (English)
• Banded Grunter (English)
• Large Scaled Banded Grunt (English)
• Largescaled Terapon (English)
• Gahnu
• Large Scale Terapon (English)
• Squeaking Perch (English)
• Gore (Kannada)
• Kallakeedam (Malayalam)
• Keeri (Malayalam)
• Marakkeri (Malayalam)
• Dadadada (Marathi)
• Gahnu (Oriya)
• Chavathinnikeeli (Tamil)
• Keechan (Tamil)
• Keeli (Tamil)
• Kovakeechan (Tamil)
• Kutta Keetchan (Tamil)
• Mattakkeechan (Tamil)
• Palinkeechan (Tamil)
• Pootankeeli (Tamil)
• Baikeeli (Telugu)
• Ganam (Telugu)
• Kilipothu (Telugu)
• Samudrakili (Telugu)
• Largescale Terapon
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh or frozen)

Habitat:  Reef Associated, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, zooplankton, finfish, jellyfish, bony fish and other invertebrates


• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Persian Gulf
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA (Record: 09/2001-05/2002)
• Kerala INDIA
• Bay of Bengal INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 29 mts)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Nagabhushanam, AK and Krishnan, S (1993) Observations on the distribution of some of the marine organism inhabiting the inter-tidal zone along the western continental shelf of the Bay of Bengal, with particular reference to the Tamil Nadu coastal strip Records of the Zoological Survey of India 93(3-4) 449-490 Available at - ZSI, Pune
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  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
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  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
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  • Brinda, S; Srinivasan, M and Balakrishnan, S (2010) Studies on Diversity of Fin Fish Larvae in Vellar Estuary, Southeast Coast of India World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 2 (1) 44-50 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms2%281%2910/9.pdf
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Balachandran, K and Nizar, MA (1990) A check list of fishes of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India collected during the research cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada Proceedings of the first workshop on scientific results of FORV Sagar Sampada CMFRI, Cochin 305-324 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/5269/1/43.pdf
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa
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Page last updated on:2012-01-11

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