Neoniphon sammara   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size: Maximum 28 cm; common to 23 cm.

Color: Silvery, each scale with a horizontally elongate dark reddish brown spot, thus forming longitudinal dark lines on body; a reddish stripe following lateral line; snout and top of head light red; spinous portion of dorsal fin with a large black spot tined with red on membranes between first and fourth spines; caudal fin yellowish with a broad red band at margins of lobes; a reddish streak anteriorly in soft dorsal and anal fins.

Body moderately elongate, depth 3.0 to 3.6 times in standard length. Dorsal profile of head slightly convex; snout pointed; lower jaw projecting when mouth closed; preopercular spine short, about 1/3 eye diameter. Nasal fossa large, without spinules. Dorsal fin with il spines, the last longer than the penultimate and close to 1st soft fin ray, the soft fin rays 11 or 12 (usually 12); anal fin with 4 spines and 7 or 8 (mostly 8) soft fin rays; pectoral fin rays 13 or 14. Lateral line scales 39 to 43; scales above lateral line to middle of spinous portion of dorsal fin 2.5.

Synonym (s)
Flammeo sammara (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Holocentrum sammara (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Holocentrus rubrofuscus Lacepede, 1802
(Junior synonym)
Holocentrus sammara (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Holocetrum sammara Jones & Kumaran, 1980
Kutaflammeo sammara (Forsskal, 1775)
(Senior synonym)
Labrus angulosus Lacepede, 1801
(Junior synonym)
Neoniphon sammara Randall & Heemstra, 1986
Sciaena sammara Forsskal, 1775
(Junior synonym)
Holocentrus sammara Smith & Smith, 1963
Kutaflammeo sammara Carcasson, 1977
Holocentrum sammana (Forsskal, 1775)

Common Name (s)
• Sammara Squirrelfish (English)
• Spotfin Squirrelfish (English)
• Hudubarihi (Mahl)
• Blood Spot Squirrelfish (English)
• Sam Soldier (English)
• Kolithaduva (Malayalam)
• Kolkaduva (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Fisheries, marketed fresh, aquarium, bait, Ornamental fish

Habitat:  Reef Associated
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes, small crabs and shrimps
Predator:  Bonyfishes (Caranx melampygus, Epinephelus merra)


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 12.53) (Long: 92.82) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Lakshadweep Islands INDIA (Record: 11/1993-01/1997)
• Lakshadweep INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Devi, K and Rao, DV (2003) Poisonous and venomous fishes of Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 211 Records of The Zoolgical Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 25934 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at -
  • Rouphael, T; Turak, E and Jon, B Seagrasses and mangroves of Yemen's Red Sea 41-89
  • Heemstra, E; Heemstra, P; Smale, M; Hoopers, T and Pelicier, D (2004) Preliminary checklist of coastal fishes from the Mauritian island of Rodrigues Journal of natural history Taylor and Francis 38(23-24) 3315 - 3350 Available at - index/
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Rajan, PT (2003) A field guide to marine food fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands ZSI, 234/4, AJC Bose Road, 2nd MSO Building, (13th Floor), Nizam Palace, Kolkata-700 020 260 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Letourneur, Y; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Taquet, M; Teissier, E; Parmentier, M; Quero, JC and Pothin, K (2004) An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean Cybium 28(3) 199-216
  • Durville, P; Chabanet, P and Quod, JP (2003) Visual Census of the Reef Fishes in the Natural Reserve of the Glorieuses Islands (Western Indian Ocean) Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. WIOMSA 2 95-104
  • Chabanet, P and Patrick, D (2005) Reef Fish Inventory of Juan De Novas Natural Park (Western Indian Ocean) Western Indian Ocean Journal Marine Sciences 2005 WIOMSA 4 145-162
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 2 Available at -
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Murty, VS (1996) Marine ornamental fishes of India Proceedings of the Seminar on Fisheries - A Multibillion Dollar Industry, Madras CMFRI 23-34 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (2002) Marine ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep CMFRI Special Publication CMFRI 72 1-134 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (2001) Ornamental fish resources of Lakshadweep Bulletins of the Geological Survey of India 56 103-111 Available at -

Page last updated on:2011-06-28

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