Cynoglossus macrolepidotus   (Bleeker,  1851) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Aqua Trade International

Size: Maximum 38 cm, common 20 to 30 cm.

Color: In alcohol specimens brownish on colored side, light on blind side. Each dorsal and anal ray marked with a dark stripe.

Elongate, snout rather pointed. Height 3.8-3.9, 4.2-4.3 in length with caudal. Head 4.1-4.5 in length with caudal. Eyes 11-15, one eye diameter apart, the upper one somewhat before the lower one, in one specimen they are above each other. Posterior nostril on colored side in interorbital space, anterior one tubular, above upper lip, those of blind side with an elevated rim, at some distance behind each other, above curve of mouth. Corner of mouth behind lower eye, about midway between hind border of operculum and point of snout. Hook of upper jaw not reaching to vertical through front margin of upper eye. Scales ctenoid on colored side, cycloid on blind side. Two lateral lines on colored side, an upper one and a middle one , separated by 6 or 7 scales. On the blind side one lateral line, not perforating the scales but shining through them.

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Plagusia macrolepidota Bleeker, 1851
(Senior synonym)
Pleuronectes arel Schneider, 1801
Cynoglossus arel Norman, 1928
Cynoglossus macrolepidotus Gunther, 1862
Arelia macrolepidota Bleeker, 1859
Cynoglossus macrolepidotus Kner, 1867
Cynoglossus macrolepidotus Day, 1888
Cynoglossus macrolepidotus Alcock, 1889
Cynoglossus macrolepidotus Rutter, 1897
Cynoglossus macrolepidotus Seale, 1910

Common Name (s)
• Tongue sole (English)
• Largescale Tongue Sole (English)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Marketed mostly fresh or frozen; also dried-salted.)

Habitat:  Benthic, Demersal, Sandy, Muddy
Trophic Level:  Consumer
Prey:  Benthic invertebrates


• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram INDIA
• Maharashtra, Amba Estuary INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Mohana (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Tamil Nadu, Rameswaram, Thangachimadam INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at -
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Brothers, EB and Mathews, CP (1987) Application of otolith microstructural studies to age determination of some commercially valuable fish of the Arabian Gulf Kuwait Bulletin of Marine Science 9 127-157 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • AlBaz, AF and Bawazeer, AS (1989) Population dynamics of the large-scaled tongue sole, Cynoglossus macrolepidotus (Bleeker) in Kuwait's waters Indian Journal of Fisheries 36(4) 269-274 Available at - Zoological records
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
  • Bal, DV and Rao, KV (1984) Marine fisheries Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited 470 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1929) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E. J. Brill Ltd. 5 458 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Subramaniyan, M; Venugopal, D and Palaniyappan, J (2008) Organochlorine pesticides in commercial marine fishes of Coimbatore, India and their suitability for human consumption Environmental Research Elsevier 109(1) 15-21 Available at -
  • Gajbhiye, SN; Mehta, P; Mustafa, S and Nair, VR (1995) A case study on the impact of industrial effluents disposal on the fisheries of Amba river estuary, Maharastra Journal of the Indian Fisheries Association Indian Fisheries Association 25 25-38 Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 2 Available at -
  • Manna, B and Goswami, BCB (1985) A check-list of marine and estuarine fishes of Digha, West Bengal, India Mahasagar- Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa 18(4) 489-499 Available at -
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-09

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