Ephippus orbis   (Bloch,  1787) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Chua, E.

Size: Maximum 25 cm; common to 15 cm.

Color: Greenish above, the sides and belly silvery, the fins in alcohol yellowish, more or less dusky in their margin part, the ventrals sometimes brown or blackish. 4 or 5 vertical black bars on body from dorsal fins almost to belly; margins of soft dorsal, pelvic, anal and caudal fins dusky black. Young individuals are reported to have a dark bar through eye and another one on nape.

Head and body silvery blue-green. Four or 5 faint dark blue bars often visible on body. Fins dusky. Body orbicular and strongly compressed, its depth more than twice length of head. Eye above horizontal axis through mouth. Mouth small, the maxilla not reaching past vertical at front edge of eye. Jaws with bands of slender, incisiform teeth with a single lanceolate cusp. No teeth on palatines or vomer. Preopercle distinctly serrate, with a broad naked margin. Opercle without spines. Head 3 to 3.5, 4 to 4.3 in length with caudal, much higher than long. Eye more or less than 2.3 in head. Lateral line angularly arched with more or less than 40 sensory scales, about eight to ten scales in a transverse series between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 14 between lateral line and origin of anal, about five above the top of the lateral line. Dorsal with the first spine very small and procumbent, in old specimens hidden. The second and third spines smaller, the fourth, fifth and sixth the longest, gradually decreasing in size, their deeply incised membrane with a filiform prolongation, the succeeding spines short but strong, the soft dorsal rounded, and similar to anal, which has three spines, much shorter than eye. Pectorals obtusely rounded, longer than half length of head and about equal to spines of ventrals the first ray of which reaches anal. For other characters see those of the subfamily.

Fertilization external, oviparous

Remarks: Values in above description denote proportions.

Synonym (s)
Ilarches orbis Bleeker, 1872
Chaetodon orbis (Bloch, 1787)
Chaetodon orbis Lacepede, 1802
Chaetodon orbits Shaw, 1803
Ephippus orbis Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1831
Ephippus melanopus Bleeker, 1850
Ilarches orbis Cantor, 1850
Ephippus orbis Gunther, 1860
Ephippus orbis Day, 1878
Ilarches orbis Jordan and Evermann, 1902
Ephippus orbis Pellgrin, 1905
Ephippus orbis Seale, 1910
Chaetodipterus orbis Barnard, 1925
Ephippus orbis Herre and Montalban, 1927
Ephippus orbis Fowler and Bean, 1929
Chaetodon orbis Bloch, 1787
Ephippeus orbis (Bloch, 1787)

Common Name (s)
• Nulla Torriti (Tamil)
• Peenaari (Tamil)
• Thavanakary (Malayalam)
• Kharvad (Marathi)
• Chandwa (Marathi)
• Kolliddah
• Spadefish (English)
• Spade Fish
• Vada
• Fani
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Marketed fresh or frozen, dried and salted)

Habitat:  Demersal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Benthic invertebrates and fishes


• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Lake INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Available at - http://www.itis.gov.
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Subba Rao, NV and Sastry, DRK (2005) Fauna of Marine National Park, Gulf of Kuchchh (Gujarat) ZSI 79 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Day, F (1981) The fishes of Malabar 1-281 Available at - CMFRI, Kochi
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1936) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago Print times, Pataudi house, Daryaganj, New Delhi 7 607 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 2 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 2 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/e9163e/e9163e00.htm
  • Raj, PJS (2006) Macro fauna of Pulicat lake NBA bulletin No.6 NBA Available at - http://www.nbaindia.org/docs/bulletin6-pulicatlake.pdf
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at - http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/greenpeace-biodiversity.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Varghese, M; Manisseri, MK; Ramamurthy, N; Geetha, PM; Thomas, VJ and Gandhi, A (2011) Coral reef fishes of Gulf of Mannar, S.E of India Fishing Chimes CMFRI 31(1) 38-40 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Bapat, SV; Deshmukh, VM; Krishnamoorthi, B; Muthiah, C; Kagwade, PV; Ramamirtham, CP; Mathew, KJ; Pillai, SK and C. Mukundan (1982) Species composition, distribution and abundance of major groups/species Fishery resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the NorthWest coast of India Bulletin Of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute CMFRI, Kochi 33 1-86 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/808/1/Bulletin_No_33.pdf
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-02

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