Epinephelus malabaricus   (Bloch & Schneider,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Perciformes
Family:Serranidae

Description
Size: 234 cm TL.

Max. weight reported: 150 kg.

Color: Body with orange spots. Different colors in juveniles and adults.

Lateral body shape elongated. Its depth is 1/3rd of standard length. Pre-opercular border is rounded. Operculum is with 3 flat spines, which are equidistant from each other. Mouth is large. Two rows of teeth are present in the middle of lower jaw. 14 gillrakers are present in the 1st arch. Scales are ctenoid type. Maxillary scaled. Pectorals not reaching vent; body with broad vertical bands forked ventrally. Pyloric caeca 55-62. Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14 - 16; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8.

Protogynous, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water/substratum egg scatterers.


Synonym (s)
Epinephelus abdominalis (non Peters, 1855)
(Misapplied name)
Epinephelus cylindricus Postel. 1965
(Junior synonym)
Epinephelus malabaricus Talwar and Jhingran, 1991
Epinephelus salmonoides (Valenciennes, 1828)
(Junior synonym)
Epinephelus tauvina (non Forsskal, 1775)
(Misapplied name)
Holocentrus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Holocentrus salmoides Lacepede, 1802
(Junior synonym)
Serranus crapao Cuvier, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Serranus estuarius Macleay, 1883
(Ambiguous synonym)
Serranus malabaricus Day, 1875
Serranus polypodophilus Bleeker, 1849
(Junior synonym)
Cephalopholis malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Senior synonym)
Epinephelus salmoides (Lacepede, 1802)
(Junior synonym)
Epinephelus malabrica (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
(Misspelling)
Serranus salmonoides Valenciennes, 1828
Serranus semi-punctatus Valenciennes, 1828
(Misspelling)

Common Name (s)
• Malabar Rock Cod (English)
• Malbar Grouper (English)
• Malabar Reef Cod (English)
• Speckled Grouper (English)
• Wekhali (Gujarati)
• Wekhru (Gujarati)
• Gobra (Marathi)
• Hekaru (Marathi)
• Hekru (Marathi)
• Kalava (Tamil)
• Punni Calawah (Tamil)
• Bontoo (Telugu)
• Bhala
• Malabar grouper (English)
• Kalava
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish. Widely used in mariculture.)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(Fishing threats which include commercial and recreational line fishing, and live reef fish trade, involving the removal of many juveniles for mariculture grow-out. Habitat loss which includes significant decreases in mangrove areas and high risk to all the reefs due to a variety of human activities.)
Cultured:  Yes

Ecology
Habitat:  Benthic, Reef Associated, Estuarine, Rocky, Sandy, Muddy, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Fishes and crustaceans, occasionally on cephalopods

Biogeography


• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake (Lat: 19.77) (Long: 85.33) INDIA
• Kerala, Melekkel INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 20-28 mts)
• East Coast, Coromandel, Pulicat Lake INDIA (Record: 1997-1998)
• Kerala, Off Kozhikode INDIA (Record: 1992-2002)
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Goa INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• Kerala, Ayiramthengu INDIA
• Orissa, Gopalpur INDIA
• Karnataka, Netrani Island INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 3-16 mts)
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 3-11 mts)
• Kerala, Poovar INDIA (Record: 01/2002-04/2002, 09/2002-12/2002) (Depth: 10-16 mts)
• Arabian Sea (Lat: 18.96) (Long: 70.5) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 82-93 mts)
• Arabian Sea (Lat: 19) (Long: 71.5) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 82-93 mts)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Maharashtra INDIA
• INDIA
• Gujarat, Veraval Coast INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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Page last updated on:2012-01-10

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