Polynemus paradiseus   Linnaeus,  1758 (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Steve

Size: 17-23 cm.

Color: Body generally golden, with a shade of grey along back; fins greyish.

Body elongate and slightly compressed. Snout projecting; mouth large, with small teeth. Eyes small (minute in young). First dorsal fin with 7 spines, second dorsal fin with 1 spine and 15 or 16 soft rays. Anal fin with 2 spines and 12 soft rays. Pectoral fin rays simple (unbranched), the lower 7 free and filamentous of which the upper 3 longest - about twice the length of fish. Caudal fin deeply forked, the upper lobe longer. Airbladder absent.

Synonym (s)
Polynemus aureus Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822
Polynemus longifilis Cuvier, 1829
Polynemus risua Hamilton, 1822
Polynemus risua Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822
Polynemus toposui Hamilton, 1822
Polynemus hilleri (Fowler, 1905)
Polynemus paradiseus Linnaeus, 1758
Polynemus aureus Hamilton, 1822
(Junior synonym)
Polynemus hilleri (non Fowler, 1905)
(Misapplied name)
Polynemus longifilis Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829
(Junior synonym)
Polynemus risua Hamilton, 1822
(Junior synonym)
Polynemus toposui Hamilton, 1822
(Junior synonym)

Common Name (s)
• Paradise Threadfin (English)
• Topse
• Mango Fish (English)
• Dodywa Rawas (Marathi)
• Tapsee Machh (Bengali)
• Tupsee Muchee (Bengali)
• Bamin (English)
• Indian Salmon (English)
• Row Ball (English)
• Thread Fin (English)
• Vahmeenu (Kannada)
• Bahmin (Malayalam)
• Norakudiyan (Malayalam)
• Thamuthi (Malayalam)
• Wahmeen (Malayalam)
• Battihiravalai (Tamil)
• Kala (Tamil)
• Kattikalai (Tamil)
• Kondiangalai (Tamil)
• Panigala (Tamil)
• Seenakalai (Tamil)
• Thiravalai (Tamil)
• Valanakala (Tamil)
• Vellaikala (Tamil)
• Boddumaga (Telugu)
• Budathamaga (Telugu)
• Podikimaga (Telugu)
• Sahala (Telugu)
• Thellamaga (Telugu)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries. Marketed fresh, marketed fresh or frozen)

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine, Sandy
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Feeds mainly on crustaceans (especially shrimps), small fishes and benthic organisms.


• West Bengal, Kiagoria INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 15) (Long: 90) INDIA
• West Bengal, Hugli River INDIA
• Orissa, Jambu Island (Lat: 20.42) (Long: 86.72) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• West Coast INDIA (Record: 15/01/09)
• West Bengal, Sundarbans INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Kakinada INDIA
• West Bengal, Hugli-Matla Estuary INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Great Nicobar Island INDIA (Record: 08/2000-07/2003)
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• West Bengal, Kolkata INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Khan, RA (2003) Fish faunal resources of Sunderban estuarine system with special reference to the biology of some commercially important species Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 1-149 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Mishra, SS; Pradhan, P; Kar, S and Chakraborty, SK (2003) Records of the Zoological Survey of India: Ichthyofaunal diversity of Midnapore, Bankura and Hooghly districts, south west Bengal ZSI, Kolkata 65 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hiroyuki, M (2004) Annotated Checklists of Fishes: Family Polynemidae Rafinesque 1815 Annotated Checklists of Fishes 32 1-18 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Goswami, BCB (1992) Marine fauna of Digha coast of West Bengal, India Journal of Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 34 115-137 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Bal, DV and Rao, KV (1984) Marine fisheries Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited 470 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sarkar, SK and Bhattacharya, AK (2003) Conservation of biodiversity of the coastal resources of Sundarbans, Northeast India: an integrated approach through environmental education Marine Pollution Bulletin Elsevier 47(1-6) 260-264 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00475-7
  • PBase Available at - http://www.pbase.com/
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 3 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Rajaram, R; Srinivasan, M; Khan, SA and Kannan, L (2004) Ichthyofaunal diversity of great Nicobar Island, Bay of Bengal Journal of Indian fisheries association 31 13-26 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Kagwade, PV (1973) Polynemid fishery resources of India Proceedings of the symposium on living resources of the seas around India CMFRI-Cochin 424-433 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/2722/1/Article_28.pdf
  • Gopalakrishnan, V (1971) The biology of the Hooghly-Matlah estuarine system (West Bengal, India) with special reference to its fisheries Journal of marine biological association of india Marine biological association of india 13(2) 182-194 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Manna, B and Goswami, BCB (1985) A check-list of marine and estuarine fishes of Digha, West Bengal, India Mahasagar- Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa 18(4) 489-499 Available at - http://nicmas.nio.org/Mahasagar/Mahasagar_V-18/Mahasagar_18%284%29_489.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-23

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