Liriope tetraphylla   (Chamisso & Eysenhardt,  1821) (Hydrozoan)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class: Hydrozoa
Order:Trachymedusae
Family:Geryoniidae

Image copyrights: Michigan Science Art

Description
Size: 10-15 mm wide; umbrella diameter 30 mm.

Hemispherical umbrella with thick jelly. Stomach small on peduncle. Mouth having four simple lips. Radial canals broad. Gonads variable in shaped and sizes. Perradial tentacles four, long and hollow and interradial tentacles four, small and solid.


Synonym (s)
Geryonia tetraphylla Chamisso & Eysenhard, 1821
Liriope indica Bigelow, 1904
Liriope tetraphylla Schmidt, 1973
Liriope catharinensis Muller, 1859
Liriope conirostris Haeckel, 1879
Liriope eurybia Haeckel, 1864
Liriope scutigera McCrady, 1859

Common Name (s)
Economic Importance and Threats

Ecology
Habitat:  Pelagic, Estuarine, Coastal

Biogeography


• West Bengal, Sagar Island (Lat: 21.72) (Long: 88.1) INDIA
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 15) (Long: 90) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai (Lat: 18.98) (Long: 72.83) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Dharamtar Estuary (Lat: 18.75) (Long: 72.84) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA (Record: 1931, 1932)
• West Bengal, Kachuberia INDIA (Record: 20/03/1981)
• West Bengal, Sagar Island INDIA (Record: 20/03/1981)
• West Bengal, Gosaba INDIA (Record: 15/09/1984)
• West Bengal, Sunderbans INDIA (Record: 15/09/1984, 20/07/1987)
• West Bengal, Jharkhali INDIA (Record: 20/07/1987)
• Orissa, Off Puri INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Nancowry INDIA
• Kerala, Trivandrum INDIA (Record: 1945, 1951)
• Kerala, Kozhikode INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Kerala, Off Kochi, Fairway Buoy (Lat: 9.95) (Long: 76.16) INDIA (Record: 08/1968-11/1968)
• Lakshadweep Islands (Lat: 7) (Long: 69) INDIA (Record: 1985-1987) (Depth: 150 mts)
• Lakshadweep Islands (Lat: 18) (Long: 76) INDIA (Record: 1985-1987) (Depth: 150 mts)
• Southwest Coast INDIA (Record: 04/1988-05/1988)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai Harbour (Lat: 18.70) (Long: 72.85) INDIA (Record: 09/1984-11/1985) (Depth: 2.5-14 mts)
• Maharashtra, Dharamtar Creek (Lat: 18.86) (Long: 73.02) INDIA (Record: 09/1984-11/1985) (Depth: 2.5-14 mts)
• Bay of Bengal INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi Backwaters INDIA
• West Bengal, South 24 Parganas INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Vasishta Godavari estuary INDIA (Record: 10/1981-06/1983)
• Exclusive Economic Zone INDIA (Record: 1986-1990) (Depth: 150 mts)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai Harbour-Thane creek system INDIA (Record: 10/1985-09/1986) (Depth: 6-10 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Russell, FE and Nagabhushanam, R (1996) Minor phyla in the venomous and poisonous marine invertebrates of the Indian Ocean 1-271 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Beebe, CW (1910) XXVII. Catalogue of the pheasants, peafowl, jungle fowl and spur fowl in the Indian Museum Records of the Indian Museum ZSI 5(Part IV) 263-275 Available at - Pune University, Pune
  • Santhakumari, V (1993) A study of Medusae from Andaman and Nicobar waters The Journal of the Zoological Society of Kerala 3(1) 37-43 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Conway, DVP; White, RG; Hugues-Dit-Ciles, J; Gallienne, CP and Robins, DB (2003) Guide to the coastal and surface zooplankton of the south western Indian Ocean Occasional publication no 15 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom Occasional Publication of the Marine Biological association of the United Kingdom 354 pp Available at - http://www.mba.ac.uk/nmbl/publications/occpub/pdf/occ_pub_15.pdf
  • Michel, HB; Behbehani, M and Herring, D (1986) Zooplankton of the western Arabian Gulf south of Kuwait waters Kuwait Bulletin of Marine Science 8(1435) 13150 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Santhakumari, V and Nair, VR (1999) Distribution of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences CSIR, New Delhi 28 150-157 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Santhakumari, V; Tiwari, LR and Nair, VR (1999) Species composition, abundance and distribution of hydromedusae from Dharamtar estuarine system, adjoning Bombay harbour Indian Journal of Marine Sciences CSIR, New Delhi 28 158-162 Available at - NIO, RC Kochi
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Haldar, BP and Choudhury, A (1995) Medusae: Cnidaria Estuarine ecosystem series, Part 2: Hugli Matla Estuary ZSI, Calcutta 9-30 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Myers, P; Espinosa, R; Parr, CS; Jones, T; Hammond, GS and Dewey, TA (2006) Animal diversity web Available at - http://animaldiversity.org.
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Vannucci, M; Santhakumari, V and dos Santos, EP (1970) The ecology of hydromedusae from the Cochin area Marine Biology Springer Berlin 7(1) 49-58 Available at - http://www.springerlink.com/content/p0216458384h1867/fulltext.pdf
  • Santhakumari, V (1996) Medusae from the sea around Laccadive group of islands (7 degrees-18 degrees N/69 degrees-76 degrees E) Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Scientific Results of FORV Sagar Sampada Department of Ocean Development, New Delhi, India 249-255 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Santhakumari, V and Peter, KJ (1993) Relative abundance and diel variation of zooplankton from south west coast of India Journal of the Indian Fisheries Association Indian Fisheries Association 23 73-85 Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/handle/2264/2783
  • Tiwari, LR and Nair, VR (2002) Plankton biodiversity of Dharamtar creek adjoining Mumbai harbour Proceedings of the National Seminar on Creeks, Estuaries and Mangroves - Pollution and Conservation Vidya Prasarak Mandal's B.N. Bandodkar College of Science; Thane, India 96-102p Available at - http://drs.nio.org/drs/handle/2264/1356
  • Jitlang, I; Pattarajinda, S; Mishra, R and Wongrat, L (2007) Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Zooplankton in the Bay of Bengal The Ecosystem-Based Fishery Management in the Bay of Bengal 65-92 Available at - http://map.seafdec.org/downloads/BIMSTEC/010-Zooplankton-Issaporn.pdf
  • Sastry, AGRS and Chandramohan, P (1989) Planktonic coelenterates of Vasishta Godavari estuary, east coast of India Indian Journal of Marine Sciences Scientific Publishers 18 160-164 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Silas, EG and Pillai, PP (1975) Dynamics of zooplankton in a tropical estuary (Cochin backwater), with a review on the plankton fauna of the environment 7(2) 329-355 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mitra, S (2010) Cnidarian fauna in Wetlands of West Bengal Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 7(2) 133-139 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Santhakumari, V (1997) Species composition, distribution and abundance of hydromedusae in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the east coast of India Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory Sirahama 38(1-2) 53-61 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Santhakumari, V; Ramaiah, N and Nair, VR (1997) Ecology of hydromedusae from Bombay Harbour - Thana and Bassein creek estuarine complex Indian Journal of Marine Sciences National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources 26(2) 162-168 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-02-06

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