Pisodonophis boro   (Hamilton,  1822) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Shao, KT

Size: 70-100 cm.

Color: Uniform brownish olive above, lighter below, dorsal fin with a narrow black edge.

It is snake-like, cylindrical, compressed only along extreme tail tip. Anterior nostril tubular, posterior along lower edge of lip, teeth granular to molariform, multiserial bands on jaws and vomer, but sharper on jaws and more pointed in young individuals, median fins not continuous posteriorly, extreme tip of tail stiff and finless. Dorsal fin origin about a pectoral fin length behind tips of pectoral fins, lateral line inconspicuous. Dorsal spines (total): 0 - 0, Anal spines: 0, Vertebrae: 171-173.

Reported to spawn in rice-paddies during the rainy season.

Synonym (s)
Conger microstoma Eydoux & Souleyet, 1850
Ophichthys boro (Hamilton, 1822)
Ophisurus baccidens Cantor, 1849
Ophisurus boro Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822
Ophisurus brachysoma Bleeker, 1852
Ophisurus caudatus McClelland, 1822
Ophisurus harancha Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822
Ophisurus hijala Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822
Ophisurus minimus McClelland, 1844
Ophisurus potamophilus Bleeker, 1853
Ophisurus rostratus McClelland, 1844
Ophisurus schaapi Bleeker, 1852
Ophisurus schaapii Bleeker, 1852
Ophisurus sinensis Richardson, 1848
Ophisurus vermiformis McClelland, 1844
Ophiurus baccidens Cantor, 1849
Pisodonophis assamensis Sen, 1986
Pisoodonophis boro (Hamilton, 1822)
Pisoodonophis moluccensis Bleeker, 1864
Pisoodonophis zophistius (non Jordan & Snyder, 1901)
Conger microstoma Eydoux & Souleyet, 1850
(Junior synonym)
Ophichthys boro (Hamilton, 1822)
(Senior synonym)
Ophisurus baccidens Cantor, 1849
(Junior synonym)
Ophisurus boro Hamilton, 1822
(Senior synonym)
Ophisurus brachysoma Bleeker, 1852
(Junior synonym)
Ophisurus caudatus McClelland, 1844
(Junior synonym)
Ophisurus harancha Hamilton, 1822
(Junior synonym)
Ophisurus potamophilus Bleeker, 1853
(Junior synonym)
Ophisurus schaapii Bleeker, 1852
(Junior synonym)
Ophisurus sinensis Richardson, 1848
(Junior synonym)
Ophiurus baccidens Cantor, 1849
(Junior synonym)
Pisodonophis assamensis Sen, 1986
(Junior synonym)
Pisodonophis boro Talwar and Kacker, 1984

Common Name (s)
• Kharu (Bengali)
• Snake Eel (English)
• Bengals Snake Eel (English )
• Rice Paddy Eel (English )
• Malanjil (Malayalam)
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Marketed fresh, used as bait.)

Habitat:  Demersal, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Tertiary Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes and crabs


• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• West Bengal, Kakdwip INDIA (Record: 09/03/1985, 06/04/1987)
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1985-1987)
• West Bengal, Sonakhali INDIA (Record: 17/01/1987)
• West Bengal, Mooriganga INDIA (Record: 05/04/1987)
• West Bengal, Bakkhali Coast INDIA (Record: 09/04/1987)
• West Bengal, Diamond Harbour INDIA (Record: 10/04/1987)
• West Bengal, Haldia INDIA (Record: 13/04/1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• West Bengal, Phuleshwar INDIA (Record: 05/04/1989)
• West Bengal, Sibganj INDIA (Record: 31/03/1989)
• West Bengal, Dingakhali INDIA (Record: 31/01/1989)
• West Bengal, Digha Mohana (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• West Bengal, Bangaon, Ichhamati River INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Venkateswarlu, T and Rama Rao, KV (1986) Valid scientific names to Day's fish fauna of India Miscellaneous publication, occasional paper no 87 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI p 48 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Nandi, NC; Das, SR; Bhuinya, S and Dasgupta, JM (1993) Wetland faunal resources of West Bengal, I., north and south 24-Parganas districts Occasional paper no 150 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI 18264
  • Fauna of Tripura (part-1) vertebrates ZSI, Kolkata 365 pp
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds) (1991) Animal resources of India (Protozoa to Mammalia) ZSI 1-694 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Khan, RA (2002) The ecology and faunal diversity of two floodplain Ox Bow lakes of south eastern West Bengal Occasional paper no. 195 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Kolkata 20821 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Ghosh, AK (1974) New species and new records of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from north-east India Oriental Insects 8(2) 161-175
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1916) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago A.J. Reprints agency, Karol Bagh, New Delhi 3 455 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Mukherjee, P (1995) Intertidal fishes Estuarine ecosystem series, Part 2: Hugli Matla Estuary ZSI, Calcutta 345-388 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 3 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Manna, B and Goswami, BCB (1985) A check-list of marine and estuarine fishes of Digha, West Bengal, India Mahasagar- Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa 18(4) 489-499 Available at - http://nicmas.nio.org/Mahasagar/Mahasagar_V-18/Mahasagar_18%284%29_489.pdf
  • Das, SR and Nandi, NC (2004) Oxbow lake environment and management of Ichhamati river basin, West Bengal Journal of Environment and Sociobiology Social Environmental and Biological Association, Kolkata, India 1(1&2) 81-90 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-03

Back to Search