Elops machnata   (Forsskal,  1775) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyright: Hermosa, Jr., G.V.

Size: Maximum 118 cm FL; common to 50 cm

Max. weight reported: 10.8 kg

Color: Blue-green on the back and silvery on the flanks while the fins are dusky yellowish

The fish has an elongate, fusiform body which is almost cylindrical in cross-section. Very small cycloid scales which are arranged in 96-103 series along the simple lateral line cover the body. The terminal mouth bears many fine, but sharp teeth in jaws. A primitive fish, this species is spineless and its fin rays are unbranched. The fins include a single dorsal with 20-25 soft rays, an anal with 15-18 rays and a deeply forked caudal following a broad caudal peduncle. Upper jaw reaching well behind eye, teeth on jaws villiform.
Maxillary extending beyound the eye. Lower jaw projecting, covering the anterior part of the intermaxillary band of teeth when the mouth is closed. Pectorals 3/5 length of head, extending a littel less than 1/2 of the distance from their base to the ventrals. Origin of ventrals a little nearer to base of caudal than to the end of snout. Fourteen gillrakers. Pelvic fin base appears below middle of dorsal fin ray.

Synonym (s)
Argentina machnata Forsskal, 1775
(Senior synonym)
Elops saurus Day, 1878
Gentina machnata Forsskal, 1775
Elops capensis Smith, 1849
(Junior synonym)
Elops hawaiensis (non Regan, 1909)
(Misapplied name)
Elops indicus Swainson, 1839
(Junior synonym)
Elops saurus (non Linnaeus, 1766)
(Misapplied name)

Common Name (s)
• Tenpounder (English)
• Ladyfish (English)
• Valli Poomeen (Malayalam)
• Shonas (Marathi)
• Dandeli (Marathi)
• Chirya (Marathi)
• Manna (Tamil)
• Poomeen (Tamil)
• Ullahti (Tamil)
• Jinnagow (Telugu)
• Jallugu (Telugu)
• Naum (Oriya)
• Indo-Pacific tarpon (English )
• Mooran kendai (Tamil)
• Naham
• Valaya kulanchan
• Ten Pounder
• Giant Herring (English)
• Rajputani
• Kalur
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Game fish, marketed fresh or frozen, dried and salted. Edible, but not tasty and full of bones )

Habitat:  Pelagic, Bentho Pelagic, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Small fishes and crustaceans


• West Coast INDIA
• Gulf of Oman
• Persian Gulf
• Red Sea
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1985-1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Pichavaram Mangrove INDIA (Record: 04/1980-03/1982)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA (Record: 09/2001-05/2002)
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)

Literature Source(s)
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Gopalkrishna, A and Ponniah, AG (2000) Cultivable, ornamental, sport and food fishes endemic to Peninsular India with special reference to Western Ghats Endemic fish diversity of Western Ghats 13-32
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Gopalakrishnan, V (1972) Taxonomy and biology of tropical fin-fish for coastal aquaculture in the Indo-Pacific region Coastal aquaculture in the Indo-Pacific region 120-149
  • (2001) Fauna of Godavari estuary, Andhra Pradesh Estuarine ecosystem series 4 ZSI, Kolkata 1-166 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds) (1991) Animal resources of India (Protozoa to Mammalia) ZSI 1-694 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Fish yield status in Chilika lagoon during post-hydrological intervention period (2001-02 - 2002-03)
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Tun, MT (2001) Marine fishes of Myanmar (pelagic and demersal) U Than Tun, Director-General, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Myanmar 276 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Weber, M; Beaufort, LF (1965) The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago E.J. Brill, Leiden, Holland 2 404 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Al-Abdessalaam, TZS (1995) Marine species of the Sultanate of Oman p 412 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Chandrasekaran, VS (2000) Relationship between plankton and finfish and shellfish juveniles in Pichavaram mangrove waterways, south east coast of India Seaweed Research and Utilisation Seaweed Research and Utilisation Association, Tamil Nadu 22 (1 & 2) 199-207 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 2 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 2 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/e9163e/e9163e00.htm
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at - http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/stdy_coral.pdf
  • Brinda, S; Srinivasan, M and Balakrishnan, S (2010) Studies on Diversity of Fin Fish Larvae in Vellar Estuary, Southeast Coast of India World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 2 (1) 44-50 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms2%281%2910/9.pdf
  • Murty, VS (1969) Catalogue of fishes (excluding from the Laccadives) in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Bulletin of Central Marine Research Institute CMFRI, Cochin 10 1-38 Available at - http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/571/1/Bulletin_10.pdf
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Sujatha, K (1995) Finfish constituents of trawl by-catch off Visakhapatnam Fishery Technology Society of Fisheries Technologists 32(1) 56-60 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2011-12-28

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