Carcharhinus limbatus   (Valenciennes, in Muller & Henle,  1839) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Elasmobranchii

Image copyrights: Randall, J.E.

Size (male): 275 cm TL

Max. weight reported: 122.8 kg

Color: Dark grey, ashy blue or dusky bronze on back, belly white or yellowish white; a dark band extending rearward along each side to about over origin of pelvic fin; tips of pelvic fins with a persistent black spot; tips of dorsal fins, pectoral fins, anal, and lower lobe of caudal fin usually black or dusky in young individuals, fading with growth.

Body fusiform and moderately slender. Snout long, about equal to or slightly less than mouth width, greater than distance between nostrils, its tip narrowly rounded to pointed; labial folds short, the upper inconspicuous. Teeth in 14 to 16 rows, the upper and lower teeth nearly symmetrical and similar, with erect, narrow cusps and serrated edged. Gill openings moderately long. First dorsal fin with a pointed or very narrowly rounded apex, its height less than 2.2 times in space between dorsal fin bases, its origin above, or just behind pectoral insertions; second dorsal fin high, its inner margin less than 2 times fin height, its origin over or slightly in front of anal fin origin. Pectoral fins falcate. No dermal ridge between dorsal fins.

Viviparous, produces litters of one to 10 young. Parthenogenesis has been observed in a captive female.

Max. age reported : 12 years

Synonym (s)
Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides (non Whitley, 1934)
(Misapplied name)
Carcharhinus brevipinna (Muller & Henle, 1839)
(Misapplied name)
Carcharhinus limbatus (non Valenciennes, 1839)
(Misapplied name)
Carcharias limbatus Day, 1889
Carcharias limbatus German, 1913
Carcharias limbatus Miiller, 1841
Carcharias limbatus Sorely, 1933
Carcharias limbatus Steindachner, 1906
Isogomphodon maculipinnnis Poey, 1866
Carcharias limbatus Muller & Henle, 1839
(Senior synonym)
Carcharhinus natator Meek & Hildebrand, 1923
(Junior synonym)
Carcharias aethalorus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
(Junior synonym)
Carcharhinus brevipinna (non Muller & Henle, 1839)
(Misapplied name)
Carcharhinus melanopterus (non Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)
(Misapplied name)
Carcharhinus tilstoni (non Whitley, 1950)
(Misapplied name)
Carcharias abbreviatus Klunzinger, 1871
(Ambiguous synonym)
Carcharias ehrenbergi Klunzinger, 1871
(Junior synonym)
Carcharias maculipinna Gunther, 1868
(Ambiguous synonym)
Carcharias microps Lowe, 1841
(Junior synonym)
Carcharias muelleri Steindachner, 1867
(Ambiguous synonym)
Carcharias phorcys Jordan & Evermann, 1903
(Junior synonym)
Carcharias pleurotaenia Bleeker, 1852
(Ambiguous synonym)
Eulamia pleurotaenia (Bleeker, 1852)
(Ambiguous synonym)
Galeolamna pleurotaenia tilstoni (non Whitley, 1950)
(Misapplied name)
Gymnorhinus abbreviatus (Klunzinger, 1871)
(Junior synonym)
Carcharias (Prionodon) limbatus Valenciennes, 1841
Carcharias limbatus Day, 1878
Carcharhinus limbatus Misra, 1969
Carcharinus limbatus (Muller & Henle, 1839)

Common Name (s)
• Spot Fin Ground Shark (English)
• Small Black Tipped Shark (English)
• Requiem Shark (English)
• Common Blacktip Shark (English)
• Black Tipped Shark (English)
• Blacktip Whaler (English)
• Black Tip (English)
• Black Fin Shark (English)
• Blacktiptip Shark (English)
• Moosi (Gujarati)
• Khakshi (Kannada)
• Paduvala Sorrah (Malayalam)
• Pettiyan Sravu (Malayalam)
• Kundan Sura (Tamil)
• Black Tip Shark (English )
• Grey shark (English )
• Magara (Gujarati )
• Khaksi (Kannada)
• Balda (Marathi)
• Mushi (Marathi)
• Pisori (Marathi)
• Walu (Marathi)
• Kudan-sura (Tamil)
• Sorra (Telugu)
• Sorrah (Telugu)
• Miyaru
• Ground Shark (English)
• Khaski (Kannada)
• Sorrah (Malayalam)
• Kundan Sorrah (Tamil)
• Pettiyan Sravu (Tamil)
• Paduvala Sorrah (Tamil)
• Kala Magar (Oriya)
• Kala Magar (Bengali)
• Blacktip Shark (English)
• Gray-shark (English)
• Magra
• Musi
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial, Dangers
(Used fresh for human consumption, hides for leather, liver for oil, also used as gamefish; oil valuable for Vitamin A; Traumatogenic)
Threats:  Anthropogenic
(The main threats to the blacktip shark are pressures from both commercial and recreational fisheries. Human-induced habitat alteration has also has also been reported as a threat to the species. )

Habitat:  Coastal
Prey:  Pelagic and benthic fishes like sardines, mackerels, sciaenids, soles, small sharks and rays, cephalopods and crustaceans


• East Coast INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• West Bengal, Kiagoria INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA (Record: 2000-2002)
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• West Coast INDIA
• Red Sea
• Gujarat INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Porto Novo INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Venkateswarlu, T and Rama Rao, KV (1986) Valid scientific names to Day's fish fauna of India Miscellaneous publication, occasional paper no 87 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI p 48 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre Available at -
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at -
  • Compagno, LJV; Last, PR; Stevens, JD and MNR, Alava (2005) Checklist of Philippine Chondrichthyes CSIRO Marine Laboratories 104 pp Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • (2003) IUCN Red list of threatened species Available at -
  • Vazirani, TG (1968) Contribution to the study of aquatic beetles (Coleoptera). 1. On a collection of Dytiscidae from the Western Ghats with descriptions of two new species Oriental Insects 1(1-2) 99-112
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at -
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  • Bijukumar, A and Sushama, S (2000) Ichthyofauna of Ponnani estuary, Kerala Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 42(1&2) 182-189 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at -
  • Hanfee, F (1999) Management of shark fisheries in two Indian coastal states: Tamil Nadu and Kerala Case studies of the management of elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 378 Rome, FAO Part 1 (11) Available at -
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 5 Available at -
  • Dr. Kumaraguru, AK (2000) Studies on socioeconomics of Coral Reef resource users in the Gulf of Mannar coast, South India Centre for Marine and Coastal studies School of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India Available at -
  • Manna, B and Goswami, BCB (1985) A check-list of marine and estuarine fishes of Digha, West Bengal, India Mahasagar- Bulletin of the National Institute of Oceanography NIO, Goa 18(4) 489-499 Available at -
  • Raje, SG; Sivakami, S; Mohanraj, G; Manoj Kumar, PP; Raju, A and Joshi, KK (2007) An atlas on the Elasmobranch fishery resources of India CMFRI Special publication CMFRI, Cochin, India. 95 253pp Available at -
  • Kizhakudan, SJ; Nair, KVS and Zala, MS Demersal Finfish Resources of Gujarat Sustainable fisheries development: Focus on Gujarat 57-66 Available at -
  • Devadoss, P (1984) Nutritive values of sharks, skates and rays from Portonovo coast Indian Journal of Fisheries 31 (1) 156-161 Available at -
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at -
  • Dholakia, AD (2004) Marine resources Fisheries and aquatic resources of India Daya publishing house 271-303 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Biswas, KP (2009) Fishes around Indian Ocean Dominant Fish Groups Occurring in Indian Coasts Daya publishing house Available at - NIO,Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-04

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