Thryssa mystax   (Bloch & Schneider,  1801) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Clupeiformes
Family:Engraulidae

Image copyrights: Gloerfelt-Tarp, T.

Description
Size: 16 cm; common to 15 cm.

Color: Flanks silvery, back dark, blue/green. Scapulary region with black venules. Lower parts of head powered with black. Fins hyaline. Dorsal fin lemon yellow with a dusky tip, caudal fin lemon yellow with upper, lower and hind edges black; anal fin clear.

Body compressed and fusiform. Belly with 24 to 32 keeled scutes from isthmus to anus. Tip of snout on a level with eye center. Maxilla long, reaching to or almost to base of first pectoral fin ray, first supra-maxilla oval, minute. Lower gill rakers usually 13 to 16 on lower limb of first arch, with serrae on the inner edge even and not clumped. A dark blotch behind upper part of gill opening. Maxillary dilated above the mandibulary joint, tapering behind and reaching pectorals. Dorsal very much nearer to caudal than to snout. Origin of dorsal a little nearer to caudal than to end of snout, situated far behind base of ventrals. Its height 1½ times its length, about as long as snout and eye. Anal more than 3 times in length, its origin below or a little behind end of dorsal. Ventrals 1½ times the diameter of eye, their origin midway between anal and mandibulary joint. Pectorals equalling head without snout, reaching ventrals. Caudal deeply incised, its lobes 4 times in length. Small teeth on jaws, vomer, palatines, pterygoids and tongue. About 13 strong flattened gillrakers, conspicuously spinulated along the innerside. Scales thin, not readily deciduous, with vertical lines forming a network on the hindpart of the scales, which have a rough irregular hindborder. About 28 abdominal scutes, beginning at the throat, keeled and pointed behind, especially the 12 postventral ones. Anal fin long, usually with 31 to 36 branched rays. Dorsal spines (total): 0 - 0, Anal spines: 0, Anal soft rays: 29-37.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water or substratum egg scatterers. Spawning shows two seasonal peaks per year.


Synonym (s)
Clupea mystax Schneider, 1801
Engraulis mystax Day, 1878
Thrissocies mystax Misra, 1976
Thrissocies valencienncsi Bleeker, 1976
Thryssa mystax Whitehead, 1973
Clupea mystax Bloch & Schneider, 1801
(Senior synonym)
Clupea subspinosa Swainson, 1839
(Ambiguous synonym)
Engraulis hornelli Fowler, 1924
(Junior synonym)
Engraulis mystacoides Bleeker, 1852
(Junior synonym)
Thryssa poorawa Jerdon, 1851
(Ambiguous synonym)
Thryssa subspinosa (Swainson, 1839)
(Ambiguous synonym)
Thryssa valenciennesi (Bleeker, 1866)
(Junior synonym)
Thrissocles mystax Fowler, 1941
Engraulis mystax Weber & de Beaufort, 1913
Engraulis mystax (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Thrissocles mystax (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Thrissa mystax (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Scutengraulis valenciennesi (Bleeker, 1866)
Stolephorus valenciennesi Bleeker, 1866
Scutengraulis mystax (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Thryssa poorawah Jerdon, 1851
(Misspelling)
Thryssa valenciennesi (Bleeker, 1866)

Common Name (s)
• Phasa (Bengali)
• Mustached Anchovy (English)
• Engallu (Kannada)
• Manangu (Malayalam)
• Dandetar (Marathi)
• Tolkati (Marathi)
• Kati (Marathi)
• Poruva (Tamil)
• Nedum Poruva (Telugu)
• Moustached Thryssa (English)
• Anchovy (English)
• Gangetic anchovy (English)
• Mustached Thryssa (English )
• Palli (Gujarati)
• Manangu (Kannada)
• Kava-pala (Malayalam)
• Kava-chella (Malayalam)
• Nedumanangu (Malayalam)
• Mullanmanangu (Malayalam)
• Cheru-manangu (Malayalam)
• Phasa (Oriya)
• Poravalu (Telugu)
• Engallu (Telugu)
• Poracalu (Telugu)
• Parua
• Moustached anchovy (English)
• Kola
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh or frozen, dried and salted or made in fish meal, fish sauce and fish ball)

Ecology
Habitat:  Pelagic, Estuarine, Coastal
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Zooplankton, fish eggs/larvae

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• West Bengal, Kiagoria INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• MYANMAR
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 13.75) (Long: 94.25) INDIA
• Kerala, Ponnani Estuary INDIA (Record: 03/1997-02/1999)
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• INDIA
• SRI LANKA
• Maharashtra, Amba Estuary, Mankule INDIA (Record: 06/1989, 09/1989, 01/1990)
• Maharashtra, Amba Estuary, Patalganga INDIA (Record: 06/1989, 01/1990)
• Maharashtra, Amba Estuary INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.76) INDIA (Record: 10/2007-03/2008)
• Tamil Nadu, Vellar Estuary INDIA (Record: 09/2001-05/2002)
• Kerala INDIA
• Bay of Bengal (Lat: 15.5) (Long: 80.78) INDIA (Record: 02/1985-06/1987) (Depth: 39 mts)
• West Bengal, Digha Ghole (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• West Bengal, Digha Mohana (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA (Record: 1981-1982)
• Orissa INDIA
• Orissa, Puri INDIA (Record: 1987-2006)
• Gujarat, Off Kandla INDIA (Record: 1986-1987)
• Kerala, Kochi INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat INDIA
• Gujarat, Jakhau-Babber Creek (Lat: 23.5) (Long: 68.6) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• Gujarat, Medi-Sinthodi Creek (Lat: 23.45) (Long: 68.48) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• Gujarat, Sangi-Kharo Creek (Lat: 23.28) (Long: 68.51) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• Andhra Pradesh, Off Visakhapatnam (Lat: 17.73) (Long: 83.55) INDIA (Record: 04/1989-03/1990) (Depth: 50 mts)
• Arabian Sea INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Karnataka, Karwar Coast INDIA
• Kerala, Vizhinjam INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 6.75) (Long: 92.16) INDIA
• Maharashtra, Malvan (Lat: 16.07) (Long: 73.47) INDIA

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