Thryssa hamiltonii   (Gray,  1835) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Taxonomy
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order:Clupeiformes
Family:Engraulidae

Image copyrights: Mya Than Tun

Description
Size: Maximum 27 cm SL; common to 17 cm

Color: Silvery, back dark. Scapulary region with black venules. Lower part of head powdered with black. Fins hyaline, caudal with a darker margin.

Body shape elongate and compressed. Belly with 23 to 26 keeled scutes from isthmus to anus. Tip of snout above level of eye center, usually about level of upper rim of eye. Maxilla short or moderate, first supra-maxilla small, oval. A dark blotch behind upper part of gill opening. The maxillary is delated above the mandibular joint and its posterior tapering portion extends as far as the branchial opening. Dorsal very much nearer to caudal than to snout. Its origin about midway between snout and caudal, situated far behind base of ventrals. Its height nearly double as long as its length, equalling head without snout. Anal about 3 times in length. Its origin below or a little behind end of dorsal. Ventrals equalling 1½ diameter of eye, their origin about midway between anal and prae-operculum. Pectorals about as long as head without snout, reaching ventrals. Caudal deeply incised, its acute lobes 3½-4 cm in length. Small teeth on jaws, vomer, palatines, pterygoids and tongue. Gillrakers 13, stout, flattened, distinctly spinulated at the innerside, 1/3 longer than branchial filaments, ¾ of eye. Scales with vertical lines, which anastomose on the hindpart, where they run parallel in a longitudinal direction to the hindborder. 26 abdominal scutes beginning at throat, with a not very prominent keel ending in a spine, 10-11 of which behind ventrals. Dorsal spines (total): 0 - 0, Anal spines: 0, Anal soft rays: 32-39.

Dioecious, external fertilization, nonguarders, open water or substratum egg scatterers.


Synonym (s)
Engraulis grayi Bleeker, 1851
(Junior synonym)
Engraulis nasuta Castelnau, 1878
(Ambiguous synonym)
Scutengraulis hamiltonii (Gray, 1835)
(Senior synonym)
Stolephorus hamiltonii (Gray, 1835)
(Senior synonym)
Thrissa hamiltonii Gray, 1835
(Senior synonym)
Thrissocles hamiltonii (Gray, 1835)
(Senior synonym)
Thryssa mystax non Schneider, 1801
(Misapplied name)
Thrissocles grayi (Bleeker, 1851)
(Junior synonym)
Thrissocles hamiltonii Fowler, 1941
Engraulis hamiltonii Day, 1878
Thryssa hamiltonii Whitehead, 1973
Thrissocles hamiltonii Misra, 1976
Thryssa hamiltoni (Gray, 1835)
(Misspelling)

Common Name (s)
• Hamilton's Thryssa (English)
• Hamiltonii Thryssa (English)
• Charlay (Malayalam)
• Khavli (Marathi)
• Badarkati (Marathi)
• Aathuporuva (Tamil)
• Nedumporuva (Tamil)
• Poorowah (Telugu)
• Poorawah (Telugu)
• Kancha Patua
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial
(Fisheries, marketed fresh or frozen, dried and salted, fish meal, fish sauce and fish ball)

Ecology
Habitat:  Pelagic, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, zooplankton, prawns, copepods, polychaetes and amphipods

Biogeography


• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 10) (Long: 93) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands (Lat: 11.12) (Long: 92.82) INDIA
• Gujarat, Gulf of Kachchh (Lat: 22.6) (Long: 69.5) INDIA
• West Bengal, Digha Coast (Lat: 21.61) (Long: 87.53) INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai Coast INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• INDIA
• SRI LANKA
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Andhra Pradesh INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 6.75) (Long: 92.16) INDIA
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Lat: 13.75) (Long: 94.25) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
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  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
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  • Fischer, W and Whitehead, PJP (1974) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean - Fishing Area 57 and Western Central Pacific - Fishing Area 71 FAO, Rome 2 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/e9163e/e9163e00.htm
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at - http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/greenpeace-biodiversity.pdf
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Page last updated on:2012-01-24

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