Terapon puta   (Cuvier,  1829) (Fish)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Actinopterygii

Image copyrights: Randall, JE

Size: Maximum 16 cm; common to 12 cm.

Color: Body light grey or brown dorsally, tan or silvery-white ventrally; 4 straight, narrow, dark brown longitudinal stripes on body; juveniles also have 6 or 7 light grey vertical bars. Spinous part of dorsal fin with a blackish blotch dorsally on membranes between 3rd or 4th and 7th or 8th spines; soft part of dorsal fin with a black blotch along top of anterior rays; caudal fin with median rays pigmented; both caudal lobes with dark tips and a transverse band.

A small-sized species. Body elongate and compressed. Jaws equal, gape horizontal; rear of upper jaw reaching to vertical through posterior nostril; teeth conical, strong, in villiform bands, outer row enlarged; vomer and palatines (on roof of mouth) toothless; preopercle strongly serrate, with large spines at angle; lower opercular spine very long and strong, extending distinctly beyond edge of opercular bone; post-temporal bone expanded, exposed and serrate posteriorly; cleithrum serrate posteriorly; gillrakers on first gill arch: 7 to 9 on upper limb and 18 to 24 on lower limb. Dorsal fin with 11 or 12 spines and 9 to 11 soft rays; the spinous part of the fin strongly arched and deeply notched; the 5th or 6th spines longest and the penultimate spine about half the length of the ultimate; margin of soft part of dorsal fin straight or emarginate; anal fin with 3 spines and 8 or 9 soft rays, the 2nd anal fin spine shorter than the 3rd spine and longest anal rays; margin of soft part of anal fin emarginate; caudal fin emarginate. Pored lateral line scales 70 to 85; 10 to 13 rows of scales above lateral line and 22 to 24 rows below it.

Dioecious, external fertilization. Breeds in late summer to rainy season. Spawning shows one clear seasonal peak per year.

Synonym (s)
Authistes argenteus De Vis, 1884
(Junior synonym)
Authistes puta Cuvier, 1829
(Senior synonym)
Coius trivittatus Hamilton, 1822
(Ambiguous synonym )
Terapon puta Vari, 1978
Therapon puta Cuvier, 1829

Common Name (s)
• Small Scaled Banded Grunt (English)
• Smallscale Terapon (English)
• Squeaking Perch (English)
• Keeri (Malayalam)
• Gore (Kannada)
• Galikooru (Mahl)
• Keetchan (Malayalam)
• Keerimeen (Malayalam)
• Marakkeri (Malayalam)
• Naveri (Marathi)
• Tadikiri (Oriya)
• Keel-puta (Telugu)
• Keeli (Tamil)
• Kove keetchan (Tamil)
• Mattakkeechan (Tamil)
• Keechan (Tamil)
• Pootankeeli (Tamil)
• Palinkeechan (Tamil)
• Chavathinnikeeli (Tamil)
• Kovakeechan (Tamil)
• Kilipothu (Telugu)
• Samudrakili (Telugu)
• Baikeeli (Telugu)
• Ganam (Telugu)
• Smallscaled Terapon
Economic Importance and Threats
Importance:  Commercial

Habitat:  Bentho Pelagic, Estuarine
Trophic Level:  Secondary Consumer
Prey:  Zoobenthos, zooplankton, phytoplankton, other plants, finfish


• Orissa, Chilika Lake INDIA (Record: 1985-1987)
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Chilika INDIA
• Pondicherry, Karaikal (Lat: 10.26) (Long: 79.85) INDIA (Record: 01/2003-12/2003)
• Kerala INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Parangipettai Coast (Lat: 11.48) (Long: 79.81) INDIA (Record: 12/2005-11/2006) (Depth: 12-30 mts)
• Andaman and Nicobar Islands INDIA
• Gujarat, Jakhau-Babber Creek (Lat: 23.5) (Long: 68.6) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• Gujarat, Medi-Sinthodi Creek (Lat: 23.45) (Long: 68.48) INDIA (Record: 01/1999-12/2000)
• West Bengal (Lat: 21.45) (Long: 87.9) INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Rao, DV; Devi, K and Rajan, PT (2000) An account of ichthyofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal Occasional paper no 178 Records of the Zoological Survey of India ZSI, Calcutta 1-434 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Rama Rao, KV (1995) Pisces Wetland ecosystem series 1: Fauna of Chilika lake ZSI, Calcutta 483-506 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Chatterjee, TK; Talukdar, RS and Mukherjee, AK (2000) Fish and fisheries of Digha coast of West Bengal Occasional paper no 188 Records of the Zoological Survey of India 31778 Available at - NCL, Pune
  • Balasubramanian, T Lagoons of India Environmental Information System Centre, Envis Publication Series: 3/2001 105 pp Available at - http://aucasmbenvis.org/files/04-Publications/lagoon%20status.pdf
  • Hussain, SM Brief report on biodiversity in the coastal areas of Pakistan p 113
  • Wright, JM; AbouSeedo, F and Clayton, DA (1996) Long term changes in the fish assemblage of Sulaibikhat Bay, Kuwait Kuwait Journal of Science & Engineering 232(1) 47-60 Available at - Zoological Records
  • Froese, R and Pauly, D (2000) Fishbase 2000: Concepts, design and data sources ICLARM 344 pp Available at - http://www.fishbase.org
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • Satapathy, D and Panda, S (2009) Fish atlas of Chilika Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar 74 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Talwar, PK and Kacker, RK (1984) Commercial sea fishes of India ZSI, Calcutta 997 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Fischer, W and Bianchi, G (Eds.) (1984) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51) FAO, Rome 4 Available at - http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ad468e/ad468e00.HTM#Contents
  • Rajasegar, M and Sendhilkumar, R (2009) Finfish Resources of Karaikal,South East Coast of India World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences IDOSI Publications 1 (4) 330-332 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/wjfms/wjfms1%284%2909/13.pdf
  • Bijukumar, A and Deepthi, GR (2009) Mean trophic index of fish fauna associated with trawl bycatch of Kerala, southwest coast of India Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India The Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin 51(2) 145 - 154 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Veerappan, N; Anbalagan, T and Balasubramanian, T (2009) Survey on sound producing marine fishes and Ichthyoplankters of Parangipettai coastal waters, southeast coast of India American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science International Digital Organization for Scientific Information 6(1) 35-40 Available at - http://www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes6(1)/6.pdf
  • Talwar, PK (1990) Fishes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A synoptic survey Journal of the Andaman Science Association Andaman Science Association, Port Blair 6(2) 71-102 Available at - NIO,Goa
  • Pillai, PKM and Augustine, SK (2000) A code list of common marine living resources of the Indian seas CMFRI Special Publication No.12 CMFRI 1-115 Available at - eprints.cmfri.org.in/3975/1/Special_Publication_No_12_Revised.pdf
  • Saravanakumar, A; Rajkumar, M; Serebiah, JS and Thivakaran, GA (2009) Fishery resources in arid zone mangroves in gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, northwest coast of India Journal of Ocean University of China Springer 8(3) 233-240 Available at - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11802-009-0233-3
  • Das, P; De, SP; Bhowmik, RM; Pandit, IK; Sengupta, R; Nandi, AC; Thakurta, SC and Saha, S (2007) Piscine diversity of West Bengal Fishing chimes 27(5) 15-28 Available at - NIO, Goa

Page last updated on:2012-01-11

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