Xenophora solaris   Linnaeus,  1767 (Sea Snail)
Organism information awaits expert curation
Class: Gastropoda

Image copyrights: Zdeněk Chalupa

Size: Height 18.80 mm.
Length: 7.37-19.08 mm.
Diameter 16.80-43.30 mm.
Maximum height of the aperture: 7.48-25.80 mm.

Shell is orbicular, depressedly conical, umbilicate, fringed with distantly regular hollow tuber; apex acute; foreign particles agglutinated in a spiral fashion following sutural line starting from a little below the apex. Surface is sculptured with radiately waved folds and fine obliquely waved granular threads. Whorls radiated with distant regular hollow tubes following whorls, excluding periphery where they are free.

It agglutinates shells and stones on its dorsal surface, sometimes the whole animal is concealed by the shells and stones.

Synonym (s)
Trochus solaris Linnaeus, 1767
Phorus solaris Reeve, 1843
Xenophora solaris Tryon, 1886
Xenophora solaris Mookherjee, 1985

Common Name (s)
• Carrier Shell (English)
Economic Importance and Threats

Habitat:  Open Sea, Rocky


• Orissa, Mahanadi Estuary (Lat: 20.32) (Long: 86.75) INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam beach INDIA (Record: 22/12/1979)
• Maharashtra INDIA
• West Bengal, South 24 Parganas INDIA
• Kerala INDIA
• Tamil Nadu INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar INDIA
• Orissa, Baleshwar INDIA
• Orissa, Off Gopalpur INDIA
• Orissa, Ganjam Coast INDIA
• Orissa INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Chennai INDIA
• Tamil Nadu, Mandapam INDIA
• Kerala, Malabar Coast INDIA
• Maharashtra, Mumbai INDIA
• West Bengal, Sandheads INDIA (Record: 00/06/1932, 1991, 1992)
• Orissa, Dhamra Estuary INDIA

Literature Source(s)
  • Apte,D (1998) The book of Indian shells Oxford University Press 115
  • Zoological Survey of India (Eds.) (1998) Fauna Of Mahanadi estuary, Orissa Estuarine ecosystem series no 3 ZSI, Kolkata 1-218 Available at - ZSI, Pune
  • Mookherjee, HP (1985) Contributions to the Molluscan fauna of India, Part III. Marine molluscs of the Coromandel coast, Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar - Gastropoda: Mesogastropoda (Part-2) Records of the Zoological Survey of India. Occasional paper no. 75 ZSI, Calcutta 93 pp Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Subba Rao, NV; Dey, A and Barua, S (1992) Estuarine and marine molluscs Fauna of West Bengal Part 9 (State fauna series 3) ZSI, Calcutta 129-268 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Society for the Management of European Biodiversity Data (2009) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Available at - http://www.marinespecies.org
  • Marine Biological Station, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (2003) Checklist of marine fauna of Tamil Nadu Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in
  • Rao, NVS; Rao, KVS and Maitra, S (1991) Marine molluscs State fauna series 1: Fauna of Orissa Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta Part 3 1-175 Available at - NIO, Goa
  • Dr. Ramesh, R; Dr. Nammalwar, P and Dr. Gowri, VS (2008) Database on coastal information of Tamil Nadu Report Submitted to Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Centre, Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Available at - http://tnenvis.nic.in/PDF/coastal%20data.pdf
  • BioLib. cz Available at - http://www.biolib.cz/
  • Dutta, SK (2007) Biodiversity assessment of Dhamra port site and surrounding areas, Orissa Greenpeace India 4-38 Available at - http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/greenpeace-biodiversity.pdf

Page last updated on:2011-04-29

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